India and its terrtories

Andhra PradeshTop ⇮

Area : 2,75,068 sq km

Population : 6,65,08,008

Capital : Hyderabad Principal

Languages : Telugu and Urdu


History And Geography :

The earliest mention of the Andhras is said to be in Aitereya Brahmana (2000 BC). It indicates that the Andhras, originally an Aryan race living in north India migrated to south of the Vindhyas and later mixed with non-Aryans.

During the following centuries, Satavahanas, Sakas, Ikshvakus, Eastern Chalukyas, Kakatiyas ruled the Telugu country. Other dynasties which ruled over the area in succession were the kingdoms of Vijayanagar and Qutub Shahi followed by Mir Qumruddin and his successors, known as the Nizams.

Andhra Pradesh is bound on the north by Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, on the west by Maharashtra and Karnataka, on the south by Tamil Nadu and on the east by the Bay of Bengal, with a coastline of 974 km.

Agriculture is the main occupation of about 70 per cent of the people in Andhra Pradesh. Rice is a major food crop and staple food of the state contributing about 80 per cent to 85 per cent of the foodgrain production. Other important crops are jowar, bajra, maize, ragi, small millets, pulses, castor, tobacco, cotton and sugarcane. Forests cover 23 per cent of the State.s area. Important forest products are teak, eucalyptus, cashew, casuarina, bamboo, soft wood, etc.

Important power projects in the State are: the Nagarjunasagar and Neelam Sanjiva Reddy Sagar (Srisailam Hydel Project), Upper Sileru, Lower Sileru, Tungabhadra Hydel Projects and Nellore, Ramagundam, Kothagudem, Vijayawada and Muddanur thermal projects.

Several major industries are in operation around Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam. They manufacture machine tools, synthetic drugs, pharmaceuticals, heavy electrical machinery, fertilizers, electronic equipment, aeronautical parts, cement and cement-products, chemicals, asbestos, glass and watches. Andhra Pradesh has the largest deposits of quality chrysolite asbestos in the country. It accounts for about 93 per cent of India.s total production of barytes. Other important minerals found in the state are copper ore, manganese, mica, coal and limestone. The state ranks sixth in manganese ore production and second in mica and limestone production.

Hyderabad Information Technology, Engineering Consultancy (HITEC) city, one of the largest Information Technology (IT) parks of its kind in Asia, was launched in Hyderabad on 28 April 1997.

Roads :
National highways passing through Andhra Pradesh constitute 3,005 km and State highways, including roads taken over by the Districts and Zilla Praja Parishads, cover 43,975 km. There are 1,05,674 km of district roads in the State.

Railways :
Of the railways route covering 4,248 km in Andhra Pradesh, 3,378 km is broadgauge and 870 km is metre-guage.

Aviation :
Important airports in the State are located at Hyderabad, Tirupati and Visakhapatnam. International flights are operated from Hyderabad to Kuwait, Muscat, Sharjah and Singapore.

Ports :
Visakhapatnam is a major port in the State. Minor ports are located at Kakinada, Machilipatnam, Bheemunipatnam, Krishnapatnam, Vadarevu and Kalingapatnam..

Arunachal PradeshTop ⇮

Area : 83,743 sq km

Population : 8,64,558

Capital : Itanagar Principal

Languages : Monpa, Miji, Aka, Sherdukpen, Nishing, Apatani, Tagin, Hill Miri, Adi, Digaru-Mismi, Idu-Mishmi, Khamti, Miju-Mishmi, Nocte, Tangsa and Wancho.


History And Geography :

Arunachal Pradesh, the erstwhile North-East Frontier Agency shares international boundaries with Bhutan, Tibet, China and Myanmar to the west, north-east, north and east respectively, and the state boundaries with Assam and Nagaland. The terrain consists of submontane and mountainous ranges, sloping down to the plains of Assam, divided into valleys by the rivers Kameng, Subansiri, Siang, Lohit and Tirap. There are practically no records relating to the history of this area, except some oral literature and a number of historical ruins found mainly in the foothills. Subsequent explorations and excavations have identified the ruins as dating approximately from the early Christian era. The historical evidence indicates that not only was the area well known, but the people living here had close relations with the rest of the country. From the extensive ruins it can be presumed that the whole of the north bank of river Brahmaputra, up to the foothills, was inhabited by the people who were advanced politically, culturally and in various other aspects.

References in early buranjis as well as other records speak about the relations between the Arunachal and Assam and the influence exercised by the Ahom king over these areas. However, systematic administration was established in this area only after Independence. Modern history, in Arunachal Pradesh, begins with the inception of British rule in Assam after the treaty of Yandaboo concluded on the 24 February 1826.

Before 1962 the area was popularly known as the North East Frontier Agency (NEFA), and was constitutionally a part of Assam. Because of its strategic importance, however, it was administered by the Ministry of External Affairs until 1965 and subsequently by the Ministry of Home Affairs, through the Governor of Assam. In 1972 it was constituted as a Union Territory and renamed Arunachal Pradesh. On 20 February 1987, it became the 24th state of the Indian Union.

Agriculture And Horticulture :
Agriculture is the mainstay of the people of Arunachal Pradesh. An economy which had been mainly dependent on jhum cultivation, has begun to change course slowly. Foodgrain production, which stood at 1,31,026 MT in 1980 had gone up to 2,03,287 MT by 1997-98. Steps were taken to diversify the agricultural economy by encouraging the cultivation of cash crops like potatoes and horticultural crops like apples, oranges and pineapples. Many important projects such as Regional Seed Foundation Potato Farm at Tawang, Regional Apple Nursery at Dirang, State Horticulture Farm at Shergaon were set up with the help of the North-Eastern Council to boost the agrohorticultural activities. As a result, fruit production increased from 47,430 MT in the Seventh Plan period to 89,528 MT in 1997-98. Thus, an economy at a pre-agriculture level of technology in 1950 is now firmly established in the world of hybrid varieties, genes and bio-technology.

Railways :
Of the railways route covering 4,248 km in Andhra Pradesh, 3,378 km is broadgauge and 870 km is metre-guage.

Industries And Minerals :
There has been rapid development in the State in the fields of industries and minerals. The Arunachal Pradesh Mineral Development and Trading Corporation Limited (APMDTCL) was set up in 1991 for the conservation and exploration of the vast mineral resources such as coal, oil and gas, dolomite, limestone, graphite, marble, lead and zinc, etc. The Namchik-Namphuk coal field in the Kharsang area of Changlang district, taken up by APMDTCL, has estimated reserves of 84.23 million tonnes. Considerable efforts have been made to develop mineral based industries in Arunachal Pradesh. Industrial development in Arunachal Pradesh has received fresh impetus. There are 18 medium scale industries and 3,368 SSI units registered in the State, in addition to one mini cement plant, a fruit processing plant and a citronella oil distillery. The local enterpreneurs are being encouraged to establish tea plantations in the State. Technical education is being provided by two industrial training institutes, one at Roing and another at Daporijo. At present, 88 craft and weaving centres in the State provide training to craftsmen in different trades.

Irrigation And Power :
A total area of 87,578 hectare has been irrigated since inception till 1997-98. There is tremendous scope for generation of hydro-power in the State. As against 10,000 KW of power in 1981, the installed capacity of the State is now about 26 MW. As many as 2,550 villages have been electrified out of a total of 3,649 villages in the State.

Roads :
Arunachal Pradesh has 330 km of national highway.

Festivals :
Some of the important festivals of the State are: Mopin and Solung of the Adis, Lossar of the Monpas and the Sherdukpens, Boori-boot of the Hill Miris, Dree of the Apatanis, Si-Donyi of the Tagins, Reh of the Idu-Mishmis, Nyokum of the Nishings, Chalo loku of the Noctes, etc. Animal sacrifice is a common ritual in most festivals.

Tourist Centres :
Places of tourist interest are : Tawang, Dirang, Bomdila, Tipi, Itanagar, Malinithan, Likabali, Pasighat, Along, Tezu, Miao, Roing, Daporijo, Namdapha, Bhismaknagar, Parashuram Kund and Khonsa.

Government :

Governor : Arvind Dave

Chief Secretary : P.M. Nair

Capital : Mukut Mithi

Chief Minister : Guwahati High Court

Jurisdiction of : 83,743 sq km

Speaker : Chowna Mein High Court

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S .No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. Tawang 2,172 28,287 Tawang
  2. West Kamang 7,422 56,421 Bomdila
  3. East Kamang 4,134 50,395 Seppa
  4. Papum-Pare 2,875 72,811 Itanagar (Yupia)
  5. Lower Subansiri 10,135 83,167 Ziro
  6. Upper Subansiri 7,032 50,086 Daporijo
  7. West Siang 8,325 89,936 Along
  8. East Siang 4,005 71,864 Pasighat
  9. Upper Siang 6,188 27,779 Yingkiong
  10. Dibang Valley 13,029 43,068 Anini
  11. Lohit 11,402 1,09,706 Tezu
  12. Changlang 4,662 95,530 Changlang
  13. Tirap 2,362 85,508 Khonsa

AssamTop ⇮

Area : 78,438 sq km

Population : 2,24,14,322

Capital : Dispur Principal

Languages : Assamese


History And Geography :

The word .Assam. is interpreted by some scholars as a formation of Sanskrit derivation Asoma meaning peerless or unparalleled. But, the opinion more widely accepted in academic circles today is that the term has come from the original name of the Ahoms, who had presided over the destiny of the land for a long and unbroken stretch of over six hundred years prior to its annexation by the British. Assam has a rich legacy of culture and civilization conjured by the name. Assam is in fact peerless, judged by her exquisite natural beauty, cultural richness and human wealth. Being the homeland of a different race of men: Austric, Mongolian, Dravidian and Aryan that came to dwell in her hills and valleys at different times since remote antiquity, Assam has developed a composite culture of variegated colours.

Assam during the epic period was known as Pragjyotisha or the place of eastern astronomy and later as Kamrupa. The earliest epigraphic reference to the kingdom of Kamrupa is found in the Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta. Kamrupa is mentioned as a Pratyanta or frontier state outside the Gupta empire but with friendly and subordinate relation to it. Hiuen Sang, the Chinese scholar pilgrim who visited Kamrupa in about 743 AD on an invitation of its monarch, Kumar Bhaskar Varman, left a record of the kingdom he called Kamolupa. Kamrupa also figured in the writings of the Arab historian Alberuni in the 11th century. Thus, since the epic period down to the 12th century AD, the eastern frontier kingdom was known throughout the Arya Varta both as Pragjyotisha and Kamrupa and kings called themselves .Lord of Pragjyotisha.

The advent of the Ahoms across the eastern hills in 1228 AD was the turning point in Assam history. They ruled Assam nearly for six centuries. The Burmese entered through the eastern borders and overran the territory at a time when court intrigues and dissensions were sapping the vitality of the Ahom royalty. The British appeared soon in 1826 and by the Treaty of Yandabu, the Burmese ceded Assam to the British.

Assam, the sentinel of north-east India is most strategically situated, close to India.s international borders with as many as four countries, i.e., China, Myanmar, Bhutan and Bangladesh. It is surrounded on all other sides by predominantly hilly or mountainous tracts-Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh on the north, Manipur, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh on the east and Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura on the south. The State.s climate is of the humid tropical type in the plains and sub-alpine in the hills.

Agriculture And Horticulture :
Assam is an agricultural State. Agriculture which accounts for the livelihood of about four-fifths of the State.s population still holds the key to the State.s economic growth. About 74 per cent of the State.s working force is engaged in agriculture and allied activities. The principal food crop is rice. Cash crops are jute, tea, cotton, oilseeds, sugarcane, potato, etc. Major horticulture items are orange and other citrus fruits, banana, pineapple, arecanut, coconut, guava, mango, jackfruit, etc., which are grown on a smaller scale. The State has a gross cropped area of about 40 lakh hectares with more than 78 per cent accounting for areas covered by foodgrain crops.

Forests :
Assam is known for her rich forest wealth with varieties of flora and fauna. The total area under forests in Assam was 21 lakh hectares in March 1998, of which, area under reserved forests was 17.58 lakh hectares. The area under reserved forests constituted about 22.40 per cent of the total area of Assam.

Wild Life :
The State has five National Parks and 14 wild life sanctuaries. The Kaziranga National Park covers an area of 474 sq km while the wild life sanctuaries cover an area of about 2,508 sq km.

Industry :
Of agriculture-based industries, tea occupies an important place. Tea gardens in the State occupy an area of about 2.31 lakh hectare, and there are 850 tea estates in all. Assam contributes about 15 per cent of the world.s entire tea production and Guwahati Tea Auction Centre has now become the biggest tea auction centre in the world for CTC tea. Assam is fairly rich in petroleum and natural gas, limestone and coal. Exploration, exploitation and refining of petroleum form the bulk of the industries in the State. The fourth refinery at Numaligarh with three million tonnes capacity set up at an estimated cost of Rs 2,350 crore has already started functioning. Two industrial growth centres are being set up at Balipara and Matia.

The proposed mega-Gas Cracker project at Tengakhat will produce three lakh tonnes of ethylene annually. Construction of the Export Promotion Industrial Park (EPIP) at Amingaon near Guwahati is nearing completion. A Software Technology Park will be constructed at an estimated cost of Rs 5 crore near Guwahati. The Central Institute for Plastic Engineering Technology will come up soon at Guwahati. Assam has always enjoyed the highest reputation for her arts and crafts associated with her cottage industries. Cottage industries include handloom, sericulture, cane and tobacco articles, carpentry, brass and metal crafts. Assam produces varieties of silk, Eri, Muga, Tassar and mulberry, etc. Muga is non-mulberry silk and it is produced only in Assam. An export-oriented handloom project has been established at Sualkuchi to exploit the potentiality of Eri and Muga silk textiles.

Irrigation And Power :
A total of 4,80,590 hectares of irrigation potential have been created so far. Ten major and medium and 1,327 minor irrigation projects will be executed during 1999-2000.

Assam at present has an installed capacity of power generation of about 574.40 MW. The major power stations are Chandrapur Thermal Project, Namrup Thermal Project and a few Mobile Gas Turbine units along with a mini hydro-electric project. Revitalizing the Thermal Power Station of Bongaigaon and completing the Karbi Langpi Project with private investment will boost the power supply in the State. Approval has been received for Tipaimukh Dam Project.

Roads :
In 1995-96, the total length of roads in Assam was 33,110 km which include 2,070 km of National Highway, 2,177 km of State Highway and 28,861 km of other PWD roads.

Railways :
The length of Railway tract in Assam is 3,816.15 km comprising both metregauge and broad-gauge lines. The extension of the broad-gauge railway line from Guwahati to Dibrugarh has been completed. The construction of the .Naranarayan Setu. - the third bridge over the Brahmaputra at Jogighopa- Pancharatna has been completed and opened on 15 April 1998.

Aviation :
Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi airport (Guwahati), Salonibari (Tezpur), Mohanbari (Dibrugarh), Lilabari (Lakhimpur), Kumbhirgram (Silchar) and Rowriah (Jorhat) are civil airports in the State.

Festivals :
Assam has an exclusive range of colourful festivals. Bihu is the chief festival celebrated on the three occasions. Rongali Bihu or Bohag Bihu marks the advent of the cropping season and it also ushers in the Assamese New Year. Bhogali Bihu or Magh Bihu is the harvest festival and Kati Bihu or Kongali Bihu coming in autumn is a simple affair.

Religion accounts for a large variety of festivals. Vaishnavites observe birth and death anniversaries of prominent Vaishnava saints through day-long singing of hymns and staging of Bhaonas (theatrical performances in traditional style). Ambubachi in Kamakhya shrine, Sivaratri Mela at Umananda and other places near Siva temples, Durga Puja, Diwali, Dol-Jatra, Idd, Christmas, Ashokastami Mela, Rash Mela, Parasuram Mela are other religious festivals.

Tourist Centres :
Important places of tourism in and around Guwahati are Kamakhya temple, Umananda (Peacock Island), Navagraha (temple of nine planets), Basistha Ashram, Dolgobinda, Gandhi Mandap, State Zoo, State Museum, Sukreswar temple, Gita Mandir, Madan Kamdev temple, a magnificent archaeological place of interest, and Saraighat bridge.

Other places of tourist interest in the State are : Kaziranga National Park (famous for one horned rhino), Manas (tiger project), Pobi-tora and Orang (wildlife sanctuaries), Sibsagar (Shiv Temple-Rangghar-Karengghar), Tezpur (Bhairavi temple and scenic beauty), Bhalukpung (Angling), Haflong (health resort with Jatinga hills), Majuli (largest river island in the world), Chandubi lake (picnic spot), Hajo (meeting point of Buddhism, Hinduism and Islam), Batadrava (birth place of great Vaishnava saint Sankaradeva) and Sualkuchi (famous for silk industry).

Government :

Governor : Lt. Gen. (Retd.)

Chief Secretary : Pranab Kumar Bora S.K. Sinha

Chief Minister : Prafulla Kumar Mahanta

Chief Justice : Brijesh Kumar

Jurisdiction of : : All North-Eastern States Guwahati HighCourt

Speaker : Ganesh Kutum

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S .No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. Dhubri 2,838 Dhubri
  2. Kokrajhar 3,129 Kokrajhar
  3. Bongaigaon 2,510 Bongaigaon
  4. Goalpara 1,824 Goalpara
  5. Barpeta 3,245 Barpeta
  6. Nalbari 2,257 Nalbari
  7. Kamrup 4,345 Guwahati
  8. Darrang 3,481 Mangaldoi
  9. Sonitpur 5,324 Tezpur
  10. Lakhimpur 2,277 North Lakhimpur
  11. Dhemaji 3,237 Dhemaji
  12. Morigaon 1,704 Morigaon
  13. Nagaon 3,831 Nagaon
  14. Golaghat 3,502 Golaghat
  15. Jorhat 2,851 Jorhat
  16. Sibsagar 2,668 Sibsagar
  17. Dibrugarh 3,381 Dibrugarh
  18. Tinsukia 3,790 Tinsukia
  19. Karbi-Anglong 10,434 Diphu
  20. North Cachar Hills 4,888 Haflong
  21. Karimganj 1,809 Karimganj
  22. Hailakandi 1,327 Hailakandi
  23. Cachar 3,786 Silchar

BiharTop ⇮

Area : 1,73,877 sq km

Population : 8,63,74,465

Capital : Patna Principal

Languages : Hindi


History And Geography :

Bihar finds mention in the Vedas, Puranas, epics, etc. Bihar was the main scene of activities of Buddha, and 24 Jain Tirthankars. Great rulers of the State before the Christian era were Bimbisar, Udayin, who founded the city of Pataliputra, Chandragupta Maurya and Emperor Ashoka and Maurya dynasty, the Sungs and the Kanvas. Then came the Kushan rulers followed by Chandragupta Vikramaditya of the Gupta dynasty. During medieval period Muslim rulers made in-roads into the territory. The first to conquer Bihar was Mohammedbin- Bakhtiar Khalji. The Khaljis were followed by the Tughluqs and then the Mughals. Taking advantage of the disintegration of the Mughal empire, the British established their foothold in Bihar with the battle of Plassey in 1757. Through successive battles and annexations, the British consolidated their position. Bihar formed part of the Bengal Presidency till 1911, when on 12 December 1911, a separate province of Bihar and Orissa was created. In 1936, Bihar was made a separate province.

Bihar is one of the major states of the Indian Union. It is bounded on the north by Nepal, on east by West Bengal, on west by Uttar Pradesh and on south by Orissa. Bihar has a number of rivers; the most important is Ganga, others are: Sone, Poonpoon, Falgu, Karmanasa, Durgawati, Damodar, Swarnarekha, Baraker, Koal, Kosi, Gandak, Ghaghara, etc.

Agriculture :
Bihar has a total geographical area of about 173.30 lakh hectare, out of which only 76 lakh hectare is the net cultivated area and gross cultivated area being about 105.1 lakh hectare. About 34.53 lakh hectare net area and 42.11 lakh hectare gross area receive irrigation from different sources. Principal foodgrain crops are paddy, wheat, maize, and pulses. Main cash crops are sugarcane, potato, tobacco, oilseeds, onion, chillies, jute and mesta. Forests cover about 29 lakh hectare which is almost 17 per cent of the geographical area.

Industries And Minerals :
Major industries are : two integrated steel plants, namely, Bokaro Steel and Tata Iron and Steel and a number of secondary steel making units with a total established annual capacity of around 7.20 million tonnes, the largest coalbased sponge iron plant at Chandi; the area.s largest rope making complex of Usha Matin Industries of Ranchi; India.s largest heavy vehicles plant of Tata Engineering and Locomotives Company, Jamshedpur; heavy plant building complex of Heavy Engineering Corporation at Ranchi; taper bearing plant of Tata Tenkin at Jamshedpur; India.s largest diesel engine manufacturing plant at Tata Commins at Jamshedpur; Alumina Plant of India Aluminium Company at Muri; railway wagons plants of Bharat Wagon Limited at Muzaffarpur and Mokama; copper smeltor complex at Hindustan Copper Corporation, Ghatshila; uranium complex of Uranium Corporation of India at Jadugora; zinc smeltor of Hindustan Zinc Limited, Dhanbad; oil refinery of Indian Oil Corporation at Barauni; three fertilizers manufacturing plants of HFCL at Barauni, FCI at Sindri and PPCL at Amjhore; cement plants at Banjari, Jamshedpur, Sindri and Chailbasa with installed capacity of around three million tonnes annually; communication cables unit of Usha Beltion at Ranchi, and power cables unit of India Cable Company at Jamshedpur; largest steel unit of Indo-Asahi Pataratu and five large cotton spinning mills at Siwan, Pandaul, Bhagalpur, Mokama and Gaya. Besides, there are 13 sugar mills in the private sector and 15 in the public sector located in North Central Bihar with a total crushing capacity of 46,000 TPD, and a number of distilleries, tanning and leather finishing industries in north and central region of the State and three large jute mills at Katihar and Samastipur. New projects with approximate investment of Rs 15,000 crore include zinc oxide and zinc ingots, expansion and modernisation of Bokaro Steel Limited, modernisation and expansion of TISCO, industrial alcohol and paper plants, copper concentrate, granite cutting and polishing, steel blast furnace, crystal glass, steel rolling mill, cold rolled steel complex, coal washeries, slag cement, aluminium plants, etc.

Bihar is renowned for its rich mineral resources. The mineral products are coal, iron ore, bauxite, lime stone, mica, pyrite, graphite, copper ore, etc. It is the privilege of Bihar to have monopoly in the production of uranium and pyrite.

Irrigation And Power :
Bihar has an irrigation potential of 122.98 lakh hectare as estimated by the second Bihar State Irrigation Commission 1994. Out of this 66.295 lakh hectare is to be created through major and medium irrigation schemes and 56.685 lakh hectare is to be created through minor irrigation schemes. The total irrigation potential created through major and medium irrigation project is 27.828 lakh hectare at the end of 1998-99. Irrigation potential of 66.295 lakh hectare is targeted to be created by the end of Twelfth Five Year Plan.

Major power projects under the state sector are: Pataratu Thermal Power Station (840 MW), Barauni Thermal Power Station (320 MW), Muzaffarpur Thermal Power Station (220 MW), Subarnrekha Hydel Power Station (130 MW), Kosi Hydel Power (19.2 MW), under the Bihar State Electricity Board and Tenughat Power Station under Tenughat Vidyut Nigam Limited. Under the Central sector, the major power stations are: Bokaro Thermal Power Station (830 MW), Chandrapura Thermal Power Station (750 MW) along with Tilaiya Hydel Power Station (4 MW), Maithon Hydel Power Station (60 MW), Panchet Hydel Power Station (80 MW) under the Damodar Valley Corporation and Kahalgaon Super Thermal Power Project (840 MW) under National Thermal Power Corporation. Besides this, Bihar receives its share of power from Farakka Super Thermal Power Station and Tacher Super Thermal Power Project under the National Thermal Power Corporation, Durgapur Thermal Power Station under DVC and Chukka Hydel Power Station under National Hydro-electric Power Corporation.

Roads :
Up to March 1999, Bihar had 20,973.7 km of pucca road including 3,075.7 km of national highways and 17,898 km of state highways, major district roads and other rural districts roads.

Railways :
Bihar has a fairly good railway network. Communication in north Bihar is difficult as there is only one railway bridge at Mokamah. A few railway routes connecting important places like Muzaffarpur-Samastipur-Barauni-Katihar and Muzaffarpur-Chapra-Siwan have been converted into broad gauge. The main rail junctions are at Patna, Dhanbad, Gaya, Muzaffarpur, Katihar, Samastipur, Jamshedpur, Ranchi, etc. Two bridges , one on river Ganga at Bhagalpur and the other on river Burhi Gandak at Rewaghat under construction, are expected to be completed by 2000.

Aviation :
There are airports at Patna, Ranchi, Jamshedpur and Gaya, besides landing grounds in all major districts of the State.

Tourist Centres :
Important places of tourist interest are Rajgir (pilgrim place for Buddhists), Bodh Gaya (most sacred place for Buddhists), Gaya (centre of pilgrimage for Hindus), Nalanda (ruins of World.s earliest Buddhist University), Vaishali (the seat of the first Republic of the world in the sixth century BC), Pawapuri (where Lord Mahabir breathed his last), Ranchi (waterfalls and scenic beauty), Jamshedpur (steel city), Hazaribagh (wildlife reserve famous for its National Park), Betla (Palamau National Park), Bhimbandh (hot water springs), Manar (sacred Muslim shrines of Sufi Saint Hazarat Makhdoom Shah), Vikramshila (ruins of another Buddhist University), Topchanchi (scenic value), Deoghar (Hindu shrines), Patna (ancient city of Pataliputra) and Sasaram (tomb of Shershah Suri).

Government :

Governor : Vinod Pande

Chief Secretary : S.N. Biswas

Chief Minister : Mrs Rabri Devi

Chief Justice : J.N. Dubey (acting)

Jurisdiction of : : Bihar High Court

Speaker : Deo Narayan Yadav

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S .No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. Araria 2,796.8 16,11,638 Araria
  2. Aurangabad 3,389.2 15,39,988 Aurangabad
  3. Begusarai 1,889.1 18,14,773 Begusarai
  4. Bhagalpur 2,501.9 32,047 Bhagalpur
  5. Banka 3,020.2 12,92,504 Banka
  6. Bhojpur 2,337 28,80,447 Arrah
  7. Buxar 1,633.6 10,87,676 Buxar
  8. Bhabhua 1,840.3 9,83,269 Bhabhua
  9. Bokaro 2,860.9 14,54,416 Bokaro
  10. Chatra 3,700.2 6,12,713 Chatra
  11. Darbhanga 2,502 25,10,959 Darbhanga
  12. Deoghar 2,478.6 9,33,113 Deoghar
  13. Dhanbad 2,074.8 26,74,652 Dhanbad
  14. Dumka 5,518.2 14,95,709 Dumka
  15. East Champaran 4,154.8 30,43,061 Motihari
  16. East Singhbhum 3,533.3 16,13,088 Jamshedpur
  17. Gaya 4,941 26,64,803 Gaya
  18. Giridih 4,887 22,25,480 Giridih
  19. Godda 2,110.4 8,61,182 Godda
  20. Gopalganj 2,009.2 17,04,310 Gopalganj
  21. Gumla 1,932.8 11,53,976 Gumla
  22. Garhwa 4,063.5 8,01,350 Garhwa
  23. Hazaribagh 7,277.1 8,43,544 Hazaribagh
  24. Jahanabad and Arwal 1,569.3 11,74,900 Jahanabad and Arwal
  25. Jamui 2,996.5 10,51,527 Jamui
  26. Koshi 1,195.6 2,47,525 Saharsa
  27. Katihar 3,009.9 18,25,380 Katihar
  28. Khagaria 1,485.8 9,87,227 Khagaria
  29. Kishanganj 1,938.5 1,84,107 Kishanganj
  30. Kodarma 2,410 6,29,264 Kodarma
  31. Lohardaga 2,835.4 2,88,886 Lohardaga
  32. Madhepura 1,797.4 11,77,708 Madhepura
  33. Madhubani 3,477.8 28,32,024 Madhubani
  34. Lakhisarai/Munger/ 3,302.2 30,60,027 Lakhisarai/Munger/
  35. Shekhpura Shekhpura
  36. Muzaffarpur 3,122.7 29,53,903 Muzaffarpur
  37. Nalanda 2,361.7 19,97,995 Biharsharif
  38. Nawada 2,497.5 13,59,694 Nawada
  39. Palamu 7,975.8 23,51,191 Daltonganj
  40. Pakur 1,805 5,64,253 Pakur
  41. Patna 3,130.1 36,18,211 Patna
  42. Purnea 3,202.3 18,78,885 Purnea
  43. Ranchi 7,973.8 22,14,080 Ranchi
  44. Rohtas 3,838.2 2,90,685 Sasara
  45. Sahebganj 3,405.6 . Sahebganj
  46. Samastipur 2,578.7 . Samastipur
  47. Saran 2,624.1 25,72,980 Chhapra
  48. Sitamarhi and Shivhar 2,627.7 23,91,495 Sitamarhi/Shivhar
  49. Siwan 2,213 2,17,097 Siwan
  50. Supaul 2,984.9 . Supaul
  51. Vaishali 1,995.3 21,46,065 Hazipur
  52. West Champaran 4,249.9 23,33,666 Betia
  53. West Singhbhum 8,012 17,87,955 Chaibasa

ChandigarhTop ⇮

Area : 114 sq km

Population : 7.5 lakh

Capital : Chandigarh

Languages : Hindi, Punjabi, English


History And Geography :

Chandigarh nestles in a picturesque setting in the foothills of Shivalik hills and enjoys the popular epithet the City Beautiful. Representative of modern architecture and town planning, the city is a creation of the French architect, Le Corbusier. Chandigarh and the area surrounding it were constituted as a Union Territory on 1 November 1966. It serves as the joint capital of both Punjab and Haryana states. It is bounded on north and west by Punjab and on the east and south by Haryana.

Agriculture :
Cultivable land is about 2,320 hectare in the Union Territory of Chandigarh and irrigated area about 2,190 hectare. Wheat, maize, vegetables and fodder are the major crops.

Industry:
There are 15 large and medium scale units in Chandigarh of which two a public undertakings. More than 2,950 units registered under small-scale sector, provide employment to nearly 28,000 persons. Large and medium-scale units produce hosiery and knitting machine needles, wooltops, electric meters, cycle free wheels and rims, antibiotics, soft drinks, cardboards, etc. Small-scale units are engaged in the production of steel fabrication, door fittings, spun pipes, sanitary fittings, electronic components and equipment, cutlery, machine screws, bifurcated rivets, hardware, electric appliances including washing machines, cotton-ginning, machine parts, utensils, radios and transistors, auto cables and domestic cables, wire drawing, wire products, soap and chemicals, cement pipes and tiles, dal and oil mills, electrical control switches, tractor parts, machinery parts, ayurvedic drugs, trucks and three-wheeler bodymakers, furniture, security defence system, biomedical equipment, tyre retreading, drawing office equipment, etc..

Power :
Chandigarh gets power from neighbouring states and Central generation projects to meet its power requirement. It has 3.5 per cent share of total power generation of Bhakra complex. Further the firm allocation is 80 mw, out of thermal, nuclear and gas based Central generation projects. The shortfall is being met through ad hoc allocation from BBMB besides Central projects. All the villages around the city stand electrified and have been extended the facility of public lighting.

Roads :
The length of national highways is 15.275 km. Chandigarh is well connected by rail, road and air.

Tourist Centres :
Important tourist centres are Rock Garden, Zakir Rose Garden, Fragrance Garden, Shanti Kunj, Sukhna Lake, Museum and Art Gallery, City Museum, Children Art Gallery, Terraced Garden, National Gallery of Portraits, Bougainvilla Garden, Punjab University Campus, International Dolls Museum, City Centre, Topiary Park, Log Hut (Khuda Alisher) and Leisure Valley.

Government :

Administrator : Lt. Gen. (Retd) J.F.R. Jacob

Jurisdiction of : Falls under jurisdiction of High Court Punjab and Haryana High Court

DelhiTop ⇮

Area : 1,483 sq km

Population : 94,20,644

Capital : Delhi Principal

Languages : Hindi, Punjabi, and Urdu


History And Geography :

Delhi finds prominent reference right from the times of the epic Mahabharata. Delhi went on passing from one kingdom to another, beginning with the Mauryas, Pallavas, Guptas, of Central India, and then to the Afghan and the Muslim invaders for about four centuries, and finally, to the Mughals in the 16th century. In the latter half of the 18th century and early 19th century, the British rule engulfed Delhi and in 1911, it was the centre of all activities. After 1947, it became the capital of India and was made a Union Territory in 1956. Lying in the northern part of the country, Delhi is surrounded by Haryana on all sides except the east where it borders with Uttar Pradesh. In the history of Delhi, the 69th Constitutional amendment is a milestone as Delhi got a Legislative Assembly with the enactment of the National Capital Territory Act, 1991.

Agriculture :
The total cultivated area was 74,000 hectare in 1998 and total cropped area was 1,85,000 hectares. Wheat, bajra, jowar and maize are major food crops. However, emphasis has now shifted from food crops to vegetables and fruit crops, dairy, poultry farming, etc., as these are more remunerative than food States and Union Territories crops in the territory.

Industry:
Delhi is not only the largest commercial centre in northern India but also the largest centre of small industries. Since 1974, a large number of industrial concerns have been established. These are manufacturing a wide variety of items like television, tape recorders, light engineering machines and automobile parts, razor blades, sports goods, bicycles and PVC goods including footwear, textiles, fertilizers, medicines, hosiery, leather goods, soft-wares etc. There are also units for casting, galvanising, electroplating printing and warehousing. In 1996 over 1,26,000 industrial units with an investment of Rs 2,524 crore, were manufacturing goods worth Rs 6,310 crore and providing employment to more than 11.36 lakh persons. Delhi.s new millennium industrial policy, emphasises setting up of High-tech and sophisticated industries in electronics, tele-communications, software industries, IT enabling services, etc. The industries, which are non-polluting and encourage high-value addition and depend largely on skilled manpower will be promoted. For the purpose of relocating industrial units functioning in residential non-conforming areas, the government on National Captial Territory of Delhi has taken possession of 1,065 acres of land at villages Bawana, Holambi Kalan and Holambi Khurd for developing new industrial estates. Work of construction of 378 flatted factories at Jhilmil Industrial Area for relocation of smaller units has already been completed.

Irrigation And Power :
Irrigation facilities are being provided through canals, tube-wells and effluent from sewage treatment plants at Keshavpur, Okhla and Coronation Pillar. More than 75 per cent cropped area is covered under assured irrigation. Special attention is paid to provide irrigation facilities to the scheduled castes and marginal farmers through state tubewells. The power demand of Delhi has touched an all time record of 2509 MW. The firm availability of power to Delhi Vidyut Board (DVB) from its own generating units at Rajghat Power House, IP Station and Gas Turbines including Badarpur Thermal Power Station is of the order of 850-900 MW. The remaining power is drawn from Northern Regional Grid out of allocated/unallocated share in the Centrally-sponsored generating stations to meet the demand. DVB has envisaged a number of generating projects to be taken up during the Ninth Five Year Plan. These include Bawana Phase-I, Bawana Phase-II and Pragati Combined Cycle Power Project to be established at Indraprastha Estate. Transmission and distribution system of DVB at all voltage levels is being strengthened.

The 400 KV line from Bamnauli to Bawana with sub-station at Bawana will be completed by March 2000. Also the 200 KV sub-station at Kashmere Gate, Naraina, Kanjhawla and Pappankalan-I along with associated transmission lines are likely to be completed by March 2000.

Transport :
Delhi is well connected by roads, rail and air with all parts of India. It has three airports, Indira Gandhi International Airport for the international flights, Palam Airport for national flights and Safdarjung Airport for training purposes. It has three important railway stations, Delhi Junction, New Delhi Railway station and Nizamuddin Railway station. Delhi has three Inter-State Bus Terminals at Kashmere Gate, Sarai Kale Khan and Anand Vihar. About 31 lakh motor vehicles are registered in Delhi. Delhi has a number of fly-overs and sub-ways to decongest the traffic. About 20 more fly-overs are being constructed within next three years.

Festivals :
Being a cosmopolitan city, all major festivals of India are celebrated here. Moreover, some tourism festivals have become regular annual events of Delhi. Delhi Tourism and Transportation Development Corporation organises Roshnara Festival, Shalimar Festival, Qutab Festival, Winter Carnival, Garden Tourism and Mango Festival every year.

Tourist Centres :
Important tourist centres are Lal Quila (Red Fort), Jama Masjid, Qutab Minar, India Gate, Laxmi Narayan Mandir (Birla Mandir), Humayun.s Tomb, Lotus Temple, etc. Delhi State Tourism and Transportation Development Corporation conducts city sight-seeing and excursion tours. The Corporation has also introduced adventure tourism activities such as para-sailing, rock-climbing and boating in Delhi. It is also running five Coffee Homes.

Government :

Lt. Governor : Vijay Kapoor

Chief Secretary : Omesh Saigal

Chief Minister : Smt Sheila Dixit

Jurisdiction of :Delhi High Court

Chief Justice : Sam Nariman Variava

Speaker : Ch. Prem Singh

Area : 3,702 sq km

Population : 11,69,793

Capital : Panaji Principal

Languages : Konkani and Marathi


History And Geography :

Goa, known in the bygone days as Gomanchala, Gopakapattam, Gopakapuri, Govapuri, Gomantak, etc., abounds in a rich historical heritage. Early history of Goa is obscure. In the first century of the Christian era, Goa was a part of the Satavahana empire, followed by the Kadamba, the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed, the Chalukyas and the Silharas. The empire of the Yadavas by the end of the 14th century was displaced by the Khiljis of Delhi and thus Muslim rule came to Goa. After the discovery of the sea route to India by Vasco-da-Gama in 1498, many Portuguese expeditions came to India. In 1510, Alfonso de Albuquerque with the help of the emperor of Vijayanagar attacked and captured Goa. With the arrival of the Jesuit priest Francis Xavier in 1542 proselytisation began in Goa. However, the Portuguese continued to rule over the territory except for an interlude during the later half of the 17th century when Shivaji conquered a few areas in and around Goa. Even after India.s independence, Goa continued to be in the hands of the Portuguese. However, they could not fulfil the aspirations of the Goan people and ultimately on 19 December 1961, Goa was liberated and made a composite union territory with Daman and Diu. On 30 May 1987 Goa was conferred statehood and Daman and Diu was made a separate union territory. Goa is situated on the western coast of The Indian Peninsula. On its north runs the Terekhol river which separates Goa from Maharashtra and on the south lies North Canara district of Karnataka. On the east lie the Western Ghats and in the west the Arabian Sea. Panaji, Margao, Vasco, Mapusa and Ponda are the main towns of Goa.

Agriculture :
Rice is the main food crop. Pulses, ragi and other food crops are also grown. Main cash crops are coconut, cashewnut, arecanut, sugarcane and fruits like pineapple, mango and banana. Goa produces 2,27,029 tonnes of paddy and 64,000 tonnes of sugarcane and 121 million nuts of coconut. The State has a rich forest cover of the more than 1,424 sq km.

Industries And Minerals :
The State has 5,765 small-scale industrial units with a total investment of Rs 219.09 crore and employment opportunities for 39,432 persons, in large and medium sector 140 units with an investment of Rs 1,555.65 crore employing 18,923 persons. There are 16 industrial estates besides a new electronic city coming up in the State. Mineral products are ferro-manganese, bauxite and iron ore contributing substantially to the economy of the State through exports.

Irrigation And Power :
With the commissioning of dams like Selaulim and Anjunem and other minor irrigation projects, area under irrigation is rising steadily. Work on Tilari dam has also been taken up. Total irrigation potential created by these projects till now is 43,000 hectare. All villages have been electrified leading to cent per cent coverage.

Roads :
Of the motorable roads, national highway constitutes 224 km, state highways 232 km and district roads 815 km.

Railways :
Goa is linked with Mumbai, Mangalore and Thiruvananthapuram through the Konkan Railway, which has introduced several fast trains on these lines, Vasco da Gama is connected with Bangalore and Belgaum on the South Central Railway, pesently for goods traffic only.

Aviation :
Mumbai, Delhi, Thiruvananthapuram, Cochin, Chennai, Agati and Bangalore are linked with Dabolim through regular Airlines services.

Ports :
Mormugao is the major port in the State. Mormugao handles cargo vessels. Minor ports are located at Panaji, Tiracol, Chapora Betul and Talpona, out of which Panaji is the main operative port. One offshore berth at Panaji has been commissioned recently.

Tourist Centres :
Important tourist centres are Colva, Calangute, Vagator, Baga, Harmal, Anjuna and Miramar beaches; Basilica of Bom Jesus and Se Cathedral churches at Old Goa; Kavlem, Mardol, Mangueshi, Bandora temples; Aguada, Terekhol, Chapora and Cabo de Rama Forts; Dudhsagar and Harvalem Waterfalls and Mayem Lake Resort. The State has rich wildlife sanctuaries, viz., Bondla, Cotigao, Molem and Dr Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary at Chorao covering an area of 354 sq km.

Government :

Governor : Md. Fazal

Chief Secretary : Ashok Nath

Chief Minister :Francisco Sardinha

Jurisdiction of : Falls under Panaji High Court Bench of Mumbai High Court

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

North Goa 1,736 6,64,804 Panaji

South Goa 1,966 5,04,989 Margao

GujaratTop ⇮

Area : 1,96,024 sq km

Population : 4,13,09,582

Capital : Gandhinagar Principal

Languages : Gujarati


History And Geography :

The history of Gujarat goes back to 2000 BC. It is believed that Lord Krishna left Mathura to settle on the west coast of Saurashtra which later came to be known as Dwarka, the gateway. Later, it saw various kingdoms: Mauryans, Guptas, Pratiharas and others. It was with Chalukya (Solankis) that Gujarat witnessed progress and prosperity. In spite of the plunderings of Mahmud of Ghazni, the Chalukyan kings were able to maintain general prosperity and well-being of the State. After this glorious respite, Gujarat faced troubled times under the Muslims, Marathas and the British rule. Before Independence, the present territories of Gujarat used to be in two parts-the British and the Princely territories. With the reorganisation of the States, the Union of the States of Saurashtra and the Union Territory of Kachchh along with the former British Gujarat, became a part of the bigger bilingual State of Bombay. The present State of Gujarat came into being on 1 May 1960. It is situated on the west coast of India. The state is bounded by the Arabian Sea on the west, Pakistan and Rajasthan in the north and north-east respectively, Madhya Pradesh in the south-east and Maharashtra in the South.

Agriculture :
Gujarat is the main producer of tobacco, cotton and groundnut in the country and provides inputs for important industries like textiles, oil and soap. Other important cash crops are isabgol, paddy, wheat and bajra. Forest species available in Gujarat are teak, khair, sadad, haldariyo and manual bamboos.

Industry :
The number of registered working factories in the state were 19,565 in December 1998 with the average daily employment to 8.62 lakh. The industrial structure in the state has been gradually diversifying with the development of industries like chemicals, petro-chemicals, fertiliser, engineering, electronics, etc. As per survey, the production in factory sector amounted to Rs 84,808 crore. Under the liberalised licensing procedure introduced by the Government of India, Gujarat has received Acknowledgement of 4,952 Industrial Entrepreneurs Memorandum (IEM) up to December 1998. The investment in these proposals is expected at Rs 1,21,313 crore. In addition, the state has received 398 Letters of Intent (LOI) having investment of Rs 20,073 crore and has also received 443 Letters of Permission (LOP) with investment of Rs 8,234 crore for setting up 100 per cent Export Oriented Units (EOUs). As on 31 December 1998, there were 2,064 projects under implementation in the state aggregating investment of Rs 1,05,920 crore. In the small sector, the state has cumulative SSI registration of nearly 2.21 lakh units at the end of November 1998. The Industrial .Policy Gujarat 2000 AD and beyond. accords priority to promote identified Thrust Industries. These include electronics, engineering ancillaries, garments, gems and jewellery, food and agro-processing industries, leather goods, labour intensive industries as well as 100 per cent EOUs. Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation (GIDC) has been assigned the role of developing industrial estates with infra-structure facilities. As on 31 March 1998, GIDC has set up 256 industrial estates. These include Mega Industrial Estate at Jhagadia, Vagra and Savli.

Irrigation :
The irrigation potential through surface water is assessed at 39.40 lakh hectares including 17.92 lakh hectares through Sardar Sarovar Narmada Project. By June 1998 the total irrigation potential has increased to 36.12 lakh hectares in the State. The ultimate irrigation potential including ground water as reassessed is 64.88 lakh hectares.

Roads :
The total length of roads was 72,591 km by the end of 1997-98. The State government has completed negotiation with the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) of loan of Rs 1,524 crore for upgradation of about 850 km.

Aviation :
The main airport of Gujarat at Ahmadabad is connected with Mumbai, Delhi and other cities by daily services. Ahmadabad airport has the status of an International Airport. The State has nine other airports at Vadodara, Bhavnagar, Bhuj, Surat, Jamnagar, Kandla, Keshod, Porbandar and Rajkot.

Ports :
Gujarat has 40 ports of which Kandla is a major one. During 1997-98, the Gujarat ports handled cargo of 257.30 lakh MT. Under the .Port Policy. the State government is developing 10 deep water direct berthing ports of international standard of which six ports will be entirely private ports with private capital investment and four ports will be developed in Joint Sector Ports with major capital investment from private companies.

Festivals :
Tarnetar fair is held at village Tarnetar in the honour of Lord Shiva on the 4th, 5th and 6th days of the bright half of the month of Bhadrapada (August/ September). Madhavrai fair at Madhavpur near Porbandar is to celebrates the marriage by elopement of Lord Krishna and Rukmini, on the ninth day of the bright half of the month of Chaitra (March/April). Ambaji fair dedicated to Amba, mother goddess is held in Banaskantha district. The biggest annual fair, Janmashtami the birthday of Lord Krishna is celebrated at Dwarka with great enthusiasm. Other festivals are Makar-Sankranti, Navratri, Dangi darbar, Shamlaji fair, Bhavnath fair, etc.

Tourist Centres :
Religious spots like Dwarka, Somnath, Palitana, Pavagadh, Ambaji, Bhadreshwar, Shamlaji, Taranga and Girnar; Porbandar, birth place of Mahatma Gandhi, places of memorable monuments of architectural and archaeological surprises like Patan, Siddhpur Ghumli, Dabhoi, Vadnagar, Modhera, Lothal and Ahmedabad; beautiful beaches like Ahmadpur-Mandvi, Chorwad, Ubharat and Tithal; the hill station Saputara; Lion Sanctuary of Gir Forest and Wild Ass Sanctuary in Kachchh area are major tourist attractions in the State.

Government :

Governor : Sundar Singh Bhandari

Chief Secretary : L.N.S. Mukundan

Chief Minister : Keshubhai Patel

Chief Justice : K.G. Balakrishnan

Speaker : Dhirubhai Shah

Jurisdiction of : Gujarat High Court

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S. No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. Ahmadabad 8,707 48,01,812 Ahmadabad
  2. Amreli 6,760 12,52,589 Amreli
  3. Banaskantha 12,703 21,62,578 Palanpur
  4. Bharuch 9,038 15,46,145 Bharuch
  5. Narmada1 . . Rajpipla
  6. Bhavnagar 11,155 22,92,026 Bhavnagar
  7. Gandhinagar 649 4,08,992 Gandhinagar
  8. Jamnagar 14,125 15,63,558 Jamnagar
  9. Junagadh 10,607 23,94,859 Junagadh
  10. Porbandar1 . . Porbandar
  11. Kuchchh 45,652 12,62,507 Bhuj
  12. Kheda 7,194 34,40,897 Nadiad
  13. Anand1 . . Anand
  14. Mehsana 9,027 29,37,870 Mehsana
  15. Patan1 . . Patan
  16. Panchmahals 8,866 29,56,458 Godhara
  17. Dahod1 . . Dahod
  18. Rajkot 11,203 25,14,122 Rajkot
  19. Sabarkantha 7,390 17,61,086 Himatnagar
  20. Surat 7,657 33,97,900 Surat
  21. Surendranagar 10,489 12,08,872 Surendranagar
  22. Valsad 5,244 21,73,672 Valsad
  23. Navsari1 . . Navsari
  24. Vadodara 7,794 30,89,610 Vadodara 25. Dang 1,764 1,44,091 Ahwa

1 New districts created from 2 October 1997. Area and population covered under old districts.

HaryanaTop ⇮

Area : 44,212 sq km

Population : 1,64,63,648

Capital : Chandigarh Principal

Languages : Hindi


History And Geography :

Haryana has a proud history going back to the Vedic Age. The state was the home of the legendary Bharata dynasty, which has given the name Bharat to India. Haryana finds mention in the great epic of Mahabharata, Kurukshetra, the scene of the epic battle between the Kaurvas and the Pandavas, is situated in Haryana. The state continued to play a leading part in the history of India till the advent of the Muslims and the rise of Delhi as the imperial capital of India. Thereafter, Haryana functioned as an adjunct to Delhi and practically remained anonymous till the First War of India.s Independence in 1857. When the rebellion was crushed and the British administration was re-established, the Nawabs of Jhajjar and Bahadurgarh, Raja of Ballabgarh and Rao Tula Ram of Rewari of the Haryana region were deprived of their territories. Their territories were either merged with the British territories or handed over to the rulers of Patiala, Nabha and Jind. Haryana thus became a part of the Punjab province. With the reorganisation of Punjab on 1 November 1966, Haryana was made into a full-fledged state.

The state is bound by Uttar Pradesh in the east, Punjab in the west, Himachal Pradesh in the north and Rajasthan in the south. National Capital Territory of Delhi juts into Haryana.

Agriculture :
Agriculture is the mainstay of more than 80 per cent people in Haryana. The quantum of foodgrains production, which was nearly 25.92 lakh tonnes at the time of inception of the State, is likely to touch 116.19 lakh tonnes in 1998- 99. Rice, wheat, jowar, bajra, maize, barley and pulses, sugarcane, cotton, oilseeds and potato are the major crops of the State. Under the diversification of crops, more and more area is being brought under cash crops like sugarcane, cotton and oilseeds. New crops like sunflower, soyabean and fruits and vegetables are also being encouraged. Efforts are being made to encourage intensive and extensive farming in the State. The World Bank has sanctioned total outlay of Rs 53.24 crore for a period of five years for the implementation of the Agricultural Human Resource Development (AHRD) Project in Haryana from August 1995.

Industry :
Haryana.s achievement in the industrial sector has been quite phenomenal. The number of large and medium industrial units have now increased to 986 from 162 in the year 1966. The number of small and rural industries have also increased from 4,520 to 67,681 providing employment to 6,14,086 persons. Haryana accounts for fourfifths of the country.s total passenger car production, two-thirds of motor cycles and tractors and one-fourth of total production of cycles and sanitary wares. Panipat has earned the reputation of being the .Weaver City. of India for its exquisite, handtufted wollen carpets and colourful handloom products. One of the most remarkable achievements is on the export front. The annual exports from Haryana touched an all-time high mark of Rs 2,961 crore.

The State government has revived the 1,749 acre project of Industrial Model Township, Manesar of which more than 100 acres of the land have been allotted to 40 ancillaries of Maruti Udyog Limited. A Hi-tech Technology Park with an estimated cost of Rs 266 crore is being set up at Gurgaon. A prestigious export promotion industrial park has been developed at Kundli.

Irrigation and Power :
Haryana is a beneficiary of the multi-purpose project in Sutlej and Beas, sharing benefits with Punjab and Rajasthan. Major irrigation projects are Western Yamuna Canal, Bhakhra Canal System and Gurgaon Canal. Haryana has raised water from lower levels to higher and drier slopes. It is a new endeavour that gave practical shape to the lift irrigation for the first time in India. The Jui, Sewani, Loharu and Jawahar Lal Nehru lift irrigation schemes have helped to carry irrigation water against gravity flow to arid areas. Sprinkler and Drip Irrigation have been introduced in the highly undulating and sandy tracts of Haryana. The government is taking up another Mewat lift irrigation scheme in Gurgaon district with a capacity of 800 Cs at a cost of Rs 208 crore in the Ninth Plan.

The State undertook implementation of the six-year Haryana Water Resources Consolidation Project from 1994-95. The project objectives are to manage the total available water resources efficiently and economically to improve equitable distribution of water amongst the beneficiaries by rehabilitating the existing canal and drainage system. Construction work of Hathnikund Barrage at a cost of Rs 220 crore has been completed. The state of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Delhi would get an additional water for irrigation purposes from the barrage. Haryana became the first State in the country to achieve 100 per cent rural electrification in 1970. Starting with 20,000 tubewells in 1966 there are over 3.58 lakh tubewells in 1998. Against the daily power availability of about 17 lakh units a day in 1966, the average availability now has been 400 lakh units a day. The number of consumers has increased from 3 lakh 1967 to 33.9 lakh in 1999. The installed generation capacity has increased from 343 MW to 2447 MW during this period.

Power Sector Reform and Restructuring Programme launched in the State envisages investment of Rs 7,900 crore within the next 8-10 years. New generation projects of about 1500 MW are being pursued and the existing thermal power stations at Panipat and Faridabad are being renovated.

Roads :
In Haryana all villages stand connected with metalled roads. The length of roads in the State today is 22,756 km from merely 5,100 km in 1966. Four-laning of National Highway No. 1 from Murthal (Delhi border) to Shahbad has been completed and the work from Shahbad to Punjab border is in full swing. Similarly, NH-2 from Ballabgarh to Uttar Pradesh border has been completed and opened to traffic.

Railways :
Rail routes from Delhi to Agra, Ajmer, Ferozepur, Amritsar, Jammu and Chandigarh cross through the State. Ambala, Panipat and Jakhal are important railway stations. There is a railway workshop at Jagadhari.

Aviation :
There are five civil aerodromes in the State, viz., Pinjore, Karnal, Hisar, Bhiwani and Narnaul.

Tourist Centres :
Haryana has a network of 44 Tourist Complexes in the State and caters to about 70 lakh tourists every year. Some of the important tourist complexes are: Blue Jay (Samalkha), Skylark (Panipat), Chakarvarty Lake and Oasis (Uchana), Parakeet (Pipli), Kingfisher (Ambala), Magpie (Faridabad), Dabchick (Hodel), Shama (Gurgaon), Jungle Babbler (Daruhera), Gauriyye (Bahadurgarh), Myna (Rohtak), Blue Bird (Hisar), Red Bhishop (Panchkula) and Pinjore Gardens (Pinjore). Surajkund and Badkhal Lake near Delhi, Sultanpur bird sanctuary (Sultanpur, Gurgaon) and Damdama in Gurgaon and fascinating pocket of pines at Morni Hills are other attractions of tourist interest. The Surajkund Crafts Mela of international fame is held every year in the month of February.

Government :

Governor : Mahabir Prasad

Chief Secretary : R.S. Varma

Chief Minister : O.P. Chautala

Chief Justice : A.B. Saharya

Speaker : Ashok Kumar Arora

Jurisdiction of : Punjab and Haryana High Court High Court

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S. No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. Ambala 1,569 7,97,480 Ambala
  2. Bhiwani 5,140 11,39,718 Bhiwani
  3. Faridabad 2,105 14,77,240 Faridabad
  4. Fatehabad 2,491 6,38,162 Fatehabad
  5. Gurgaon 2,760 11,46,090 Gurgaon
  6. Hissar 3,788 12,06,472 Hissar
  7. Jhajjar 1,868 7,07,064 Jhajjar
  8. Jind 2,736 9,63,104 Jind
  9. Kaithal 2,799 8,20,685 Kaithal
  10. Karnal 2,471 10,42,141 Karnal
  11. Kurukshetra 1,217 6,41,943 Kurukshetra
  12. Mahendergarh 1,683 6,81,869 Narnaul
  13. Panchkula 816 3,19,398 Panchkula
  14. Panipat 1,250 6,77,157 Panipat
  15. Rewari 1,559 6,23,301 Rewari
  16. Rohtak 1,668 7,91,887 Rohtak
  17. Sirsa 4,276 9,03,536 Sirsa
  18. Sonepat 2,260 10,64,521 Sonepat
  19. Yamuna Nagar 1,756 8,21,880 Yamuna Nagar

Himachal PradeshTop ⇮

Area : 55,673 sq km

Population : 51,70,877

Capital : Shimla Principal

Languages : Hindi and Pahari


History And Geography :

The earliest known inhabitants of the region were tribals called Dasas. Later, Aryans came and they assimilated in the tribes. In the later centuries, the hill chieftains accepted the suzerainty of the Mauryan empire, the Kushans, the Guptas and Kanuaj rulers. During the Mughal period, the Rajas of the hill states made some mutually agreed arrangements which governed their relations. In the 19th century, Ranjit Singh annexed/subjugated many of the states. When the British came, they defeated Gorkhas and entered into treaties with some Rajas and annexed the kingdoms of others. The situation more or less remained unchanged till 1947. After Independence, 30 princely states of the area were united and the present Himachal Pradesh was formed on 15 April 1948. With the reorganisation of Punjab on 1 November 1966 certain areas belonging to it were also included in Himachal Pradesh. On 25 January 1971 Himachal Pradesh was made a full-fledged State.The State is bordered by Jammu and Kashmir on north, Punjab on west and south-west, Haryana on South, Uttar Pradesh on south-east and by Tibet on the east.

Agriculture :
Himachal Pradesh, a predominantly agro-pastoral economy has over threefourth of its working population directly engaged in these sectors. Holdings are marginal with over 83.7 per cent farmers falling in small and marginal category and the net irrigated area accounts for one-fifth of the net sown area. Diverse agro-climate conditions afford excellent opportunities for horticulture and cash crops. Fruit production in the State has crossed the 4.36 lakh tonnes mark. The foodgrain production level is 14.48 lakh tonnes and vegetable production is five lakh tonnes. Large scale expansion of mushroom cultivation has been undertaken. Farm activities are being supplemented by improvement in milch cattle through a cross-breeding programme, rabbitry, pisciculture and floriculture. Apart from the largest fruit processing plant having been commissioned, a corrugated card-board carton factory has also been established for packing fruit and vegetable besides reducing consumption of coniferous timber. Forests occupy about 64 per cent of the area.

Industry :
The State has adopted a new industrial policy. Priority is now given to industries based on agro-horticulture produce, herbal resources, wool and sericulture and electronic industries. It now has 173 large and medium units and 27,000 small scale units which provide employment to 1.40 lakh persons. It has set up 21 industrial areas and seven industrial estates. One growth centre with an estimated cost of Rs 22 crore is being developed at Sansarpur Terrace and one Export Promotion Industrial Park with an estimated cost of Rs 20 crore is being developed at Baddi. There is a brewery at Solan in the private sector. One of the biggest fruit processing plants in Asia at Parwanoo is in operation. An electronics complex is being developed at Shoghi near Shimla. In small scale sector, microscopes, watch parts, clinical and industrial thermometers, hospital and heating equipment etc. are being manufactured. Among village industries are sheep-rearing, wood carving, blacksmithy, spinning, weaving, leather tanning, pottery, handloom, handicrafts and bamboo craft, etc.

Handloom and Handicrafts is an important cottage industry of the State. About 0.50 lakh handlooms in the State are primarily based on wool. Sericulture is one of the important cottage industries of Himachal Pradesh, which provides subsidiary employment to farmers for supplementing their income by rearing silk-worms and selling cocoons produced by them. During 1998-99 (up to December) 1.20 lakh kg cocoons valuing Rs three crore were produced.

Tea is grown in Kangra and Mandi districts. There are about 2,000 tea planters cultivating an area of 2,063 hectares. During 1998-99 about 15 lakh kg tea was produced up to December 1998. The important minerals in the state are limestone, rock-salt, gypsum, silca-sand and baryte. About 300 mineral based industries like stone crushers, mini-cement plant, hydrated lime unit, calcium carbonate units, limestone powder, etc., have been established. There are three big cement plants in the state.

Irrigation and Power :
The state has limited scope for major and medium irrigation projects. During 1998-99, an amount of Rs 12.25 crore has been provided to bring an area of 150 hectares under major and medium irrigation schemes. Up to December 1998, 1,766 hectares of area has been brought under minor irrigation scheme. The efforts have been to bring more and more hectares of land under irrigation through various major, medium and minor irrigation projects. Shahnehar and Bhabour Sahib irrigation projects are the milestones in this direction. Potable drinking water is yet another field where government has taken many strides thus ensuring pure drinking water to most of the habitations. Work is in progress on Rs 143.32 crore Shahnehar Irrigation Scheme and Rs 33.62 crore Sidhata Irrigation Scheme which will irrigate 15,207 hectares and 3,150 hectares respectively.

It has been estimated that about 21,244 MW of hydel power can be generated in the State by constructing various major, medium, small and mini/ micro hydel projects on the five river basins. Hydel power generation in the state has been accorded top priority from the Sixth Plan onwards. All the inhabited villages of the State, were electrified by the end of June 1988. The State with its limited resources has commissioned Bassi (60 MW), Giri (60 MW), Binwa (6 MW), Andbra (16.95 MW), Bhaba-Sanjay Vidyut Pariyojna (120 MW), Gaj (10.5 MW), Baner (12 MW), Nogli (2.5 MW) and other installations. An agreement has been signed with NHPC for the execution of 2051 MW Parbati Project. The State will earn Rs 80 crore per year after completion of this project. Nathpa Jhakri Hydro Electric Project with an installed capacity of 1,500 MW is being executed jointly by the State and the Central Government through the Nathpa Jhakri Power Corporation.

A major break through which is to Kick start power economy in the years to come is the prestigious 300 MW capacity Chemera Stage-II project. Execution of stage-II would be under taken by the National Hydro Electric Power Corporation entaining initial cost of Rs 1,700 crore. The State government has given eight hydel projects for private sector participation. These are: Baspa Stage-II (300 MW), Uhl State III (100 MW), Hibra (231 MW), Dhamwari Suna (70 MW), Karchham Wangtoo (1000 MW), Neugal (15 MW), Allain Duhangan (192 MW) and Malana (86 MW).

Roads :
Himachal Pradesh has now a road length of nearly 20,276 km. It has three national highways. Out of 16,997 census villages, 7,652 villages have been connected with motorable roads.

Railways :
The State has two narrow/meter gauge railway lines running from Pathankot to Joginder Nagar and Kalka to Shimla. Broad-gauge railway line from Nangal to Talwara under construction has been commissionied upto Una. Survey work on Bhanupalli-Bilaspur-Beri broad-gauge is in hand with the railways.

Aviation :
The State has three airports at Bhuntar (Kullu Valley), Jubbarhatti (Shimla) and Gaggal (Kangra). Work on airstrips at Banikhet in Chamba district is in progress. The state government has set up 12 helipads in different parts of the State.

Tourist Centres :
Main tourist complexes are Shimla, Palampur, Dharamsala, Kullu-Manali and Chamba-Dalhousie. Temples at Bhima Kali, Sarahan, Hatkoti, Jwalajee, Chamunda Devi, Chintpurni, Renuka and Rewalsar, Deoth Siddh and Naina Devi are major attractions for pilgrims. Hang-gliding competitions are held in Kangra valley. Solang Nallah slopes are getting popular for winter sports. There is an art gallery in Naggar and museums in Chamba, Shimla and Dharamsala. The beautiful tourist resort of Khajjair in Chamba district has been christened as the Switzerland of Himachal Pradesh.

Government :

Governor : Vishnu Kant Shastri

Chief Secretary : A.K. Goswami

Chief Minister : Prem Kumar Dhumal

Speaker : Gulab Singh Thakur High Court

Jurisdiction of : Himachal Pradesh

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S. No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. Bilaspur 1,167 2,95,387 Bilaspur
  2. Chamba 6,528 3,93,286 Chamba
  3. Hamirpur 1,118 3,69,128 Hamirpur
  4. Kangra 5,739 11,74,072 Dharamasala
  5. Kinnaur 6,401 71,270 Reckong Peo
  6. Kullu 5,503 3,02,432 Kullu
  7. Lahaul and Spiti 13,835 31,294 Keylong
  8. Mandi 3,950 7,76,372 Mandi
  9. Shimla 5,131 6,17,404 Shimla
  10. Sirmaur 2,825 3,79,695 Nahan
  11. Solan 1,936 3,82,268 Solan
  12. Una 1,540 3,78,269 Una

Jammu and KashmirTop ⇮

Area : 2,22,2361 sq km

Population : 77,18,7002

Capital : Srinagar (Summer) Principal

Languages : Urdu, Kashmiri, Dogri,Jammu (Winter) Pahari, Balti, Ladakhi, Punjabi, Gujri and Dadri


History And Geography :

According to a legend which is even mentioned in Rajtarangini and Nilmat Purana, Kashmir was once a large lake. Kashyap Rishi drained off the water, making it an abode. But geologists have their own theory which says that geographical changes made way for the outflow of water by subsidence of the mountain at Khadianayar, Baramula. Thus emerged the Valley of Kashmir, the paradise on earth. Ashoka introduced Buddhism to Kashmir in the 3rd century BC which was later strengthened by Kanishka. Huns got the control of the Valley in the early 6th century. The Valley regained freedom in 530 AD but soon came under the rule of the Ujjain empire. After the decline of the Vikramaditya dynasty, the Valley had its own rulers. There was a synthesis of Hindu and Buddhist cultures. Lalitaditya (697-738 AD) who extended 1 Includes 78,114 sq km, under illegal occupation of Pakistan, 5,180 sq km illegally handed over by Pakistan to China and 37,555 sq km under illegal occupation of China. 2 The population figure excludes population of areas under unlawful occupation of Pakistan and China where census could not be taken.

his rule up to Bengal in the east, Konkan in the south, Turkistan in the north west and Tibet in the north east was the most famous Hindu ruler. Lalitaditya was famous for constructing buildings. Islam came to Kasmir during 13th and 14th century AD. Muslims now constitute majority in Kashmir. Zain-ul-Abedin (1420-70) was the most famous Muslim ruler, who came to Kashmir when the Hindu king Sinha Dev fled before the Tatar invasion. Later Chaks overran Haider Shah son of Zain-ul-Abedin, they continued to rule till 1586 when Akbar conquered Kashmir. In 1752, Kashmir passed on from the feeble control of the Mughal emperor of the time to Ahmed Shah Abdali of Afghanistan. The Valley was ruled by the Pathans for 67 years.

Jammu has also been mentioned in the Mahabharata. Two recent finds of Harappan remains and artefacts of Mauryan, Kushan and Gupta periods at Akhnoor have added new dimensions to its ancient character. The land of Jammu was divided into 22 hill principalities. Raja Maldev, one of the Dogra rulers conquered many territories to consolidate his kingdom. Raja Ranjit Dev ruled over Jammu from 1733 to 1782. His successors were weak and thus Maharaja Ranjit Singh annexed the territory to Punjab. He later handed over Jammu to Raja Gulab Singh, a scion of the old Dogra ruling family, who had grown powerful among Ranjit Singh.s governors and had annexed almost the whole Jammu region. The State was governed by Dogra rulers till 1947 when the Maharaja Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession in favour of Indian Union on 26 October 1947.

Jammu and Kashmir State is situated between 32° 17' and 36° 58' north latitutde and 73° 26' and 83° 30' east longitude. Geographically, the State can be divided into four zones. First, the mountainous and semi mountainous plain commonly known as Kandi belt, the second, hills including Siwalik ranges, the third, mountains of Kashmir Valley and Pir Panchal range and the fourth is Tibetan tract of Ladakh and Kargil.

Agriculture :
About 80 per cent of the population of the State depends on agriculture. Paddy, wheat and maize are the major crops. Barley, bajra and jowar are cultivated in some parts. Gram is grown in Ladakh. The food production which was 14.01 lakh tonnes in 1991-92 was approximately 16.08 lakh tonnes during 1996-97. The off-take of chemical fertilizers has gone up to 72,400 metric tonnes during 1994-95. About 4.85 lakh families are engaged directly or indirectly with horticulture activities. The fruit production which was just 7.60 lakh metric tonnes in 1989-90 has gone up to 9.65 lakh tonnes in 1996-97. The fruit export was 7.50 lakh metric tonnes in 1996-97.

Industry :
Handicrafts, being the traditional industry of the State has been receiving top priority in view of its large employment potential and also demand for handicraft goods both within and outside the country. Handicrafts production includes mainly paper-machine, wood carving, carpets, shawl-making, embroidery, etc. This industry particularly in carpets earns substantial foreign exchange. The production turnover of handicraft goods was Rs 260 crore in 1996-97 and the export estimated at Rs 293 crore. Carpet exports alone earned for the country a foreign exchange of Rs 13.20 crore in 1994-95.

Handloom Development Corporation is producing woollen items like tweed, blazer, blankets, shawls, dhusas, Kani shawl, etc. According to a survey in 1987, the number of handloom weavers in the State was estimated at 36,827. Thereafter, the number of weavers is estimated to have risen annually by 2,000, raising the employment of industry to about 47,000 by 1992-93. The handloom products worth Rs 23 crore were produced in 1995-96. The number of small scale industrial units which was 28,165 in 1989-90 rose to 38,029 in 1996-97 providing employment to 1.65 lakh people.

Irrigation and Power :
A provision of Rs 205.52 crore stands earmarked for irrigation and flood control including command area development programme of the State for the Eighth Five Year Plan. The area irrigated was 4.47 lakh hectare by 1996-97 end. The Eighth Five Year Plan outlay for power sector stands at Rs. 1,175.48 crore. Out of total 6,477 inhabited villages 6,241 villages stand electrified upto 1995-96. The installed power capacity by 1996-97 end was 396.63 MW. Work of 450 MW Baghliar hydel project has been allotted to an international consortium. Three other major projects 330 MW Kishenganga, 280 MW Uri- II and 120 MW Sewa-II will be taken up for extension in the state sector.

Roads :
The road length in the State is 13,540 km by March 1998.

Railways :
At present rail system extends only upto Jammu. Work on Jammu-Udhampur railway line is in progress. Survey works for extension of railway line from Udhampur to Srinagar has been approved. The survey has commenced.

Aviation :
Srinagar, Jammu and Leh are major airports connecting Jammu and Kashmir with other parts of the country.

Tourist Centres :
Kashmir Valley is described as a paradise on earth. Chashma Shahi springs, Shalimar Bagh, Dal Lake, etc., in Srinagar; Gulmarg, Pahalgam, Sonamarg, etc., in the Valley; Vaishno Devi temple and Patnitop near Jammu, etc., are important tourist centres. Pilgrims visiting Vaishno Devi have registered a steep rise from 21.69 lakh in 1990 to 44.37 lakh in 1997. The number of pilgrims visiting Amarnath in Kashmir has gone up to 1.49 lakh in 1998.

Festivals :
On the 10th day of the bright fortnight Assuj is celebrated as the day of victory of Rama over Ravana. Shivratri festival is also celebrated in Jammu and Kashmir. Four Muslim festivals celebrated in the State are Id-ul-Fitr, Id-ul-Zuha, Id-ul-Milad-ul-Nabi and Miraj Alam. Muharram is also observed. The Hemis Gumpa festival of Ladakh is internationally known which takes place in the month of June. A special feature of the Hemis festival is its mask dance. In Spituk monastary in Leh, enormous statues of Goddess Kali are exhibited once in the year on the occasion of the annual festival which falls in January. Other festivals celebrated are Lohri marking a climax of winter; Singh Sankranti observed in Ramban and adjoining villages; Mela Pat observed in Bhaderwah and Kishtwar in the month of Chaitra.

Government :

Governor : G.C. Saxena

Chief Secretary : Ashok Jaitley

Chief Minister : Dr Farooq Abdullah

Chief Justice : Justice Bhawani Singh

Speaker : Abdul Ahad Vakil

Jurisdiction of : Jammu, Kashmir andb High Court Ladakh

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S. No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. Anantnag 3,984 8,26,291 Anantnag
  2. Badgam 1,371 4,97,346 Badgam
  3. Baramula 4,588 8,61,214 Baramula
  4. Doda 11,691 5,25,326 Doda
  5. Jammu 3,097 12,07,996 Jammu
  6. Kargil 14,036 81,067 Kargil
  7. Kathua 2,651 4,92,288 Kathua
  8. Kupwara 2,379 4,16,404 Kupwara
  9. Leh 82,6651 89,974 Leh
  10. Pulwama 1,398 5,16,441 Pulwama
  11. Poonch 1,674 2,92,207 Poonch
  12. Rajouri 2,630 4,17,333 Rajouri
  13. Srinagar 2,228 8,92,506 Srinagar
  14. Udhampur 4,550 6,02,807 Udhampur

Includes 37,555 sq km under illegal occupation of China

KarnatakaTop ⇮

Area : 1,91,791 sq km

Population : 4,49,77,201

Capital : Bangalore Principal

Languages : Kannada


History And Geography :

Karnataka has a written history of more than 2,000 years. Apart from it being subjected to the rule of the Nandas, Mauryas, and the Shatavahanas, Karnataka came to have indigenous dynasties like the Kadambas of Banavasi and the Gangas from the middle of the 4th century AD. Gomateshwara monolith at Sharvanabelagola was installed by a Ganga minister Chavundaraya. The Chalukyas of Badami (500-735 AD) ruled over a wider area, from the Narmada to the Kaveri from the days of Pulikeshi II (609-642 AD) who even defeated Harshavardhana of Kanauj. This dynasty created fine monuments at Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal, both structural and rock-cut. Aihole has been one of the cradles of temple architecture in the country. The Rashtrakatas (753-973 AD) of Malkhed who succeeded them levied tribute on the rulers of Kanauj successively in the so-called .Age of Imperial Kanuaj.

Kannada literature developed during this period. Outstanding Jain scholars of India lived in their court. The Chalukyas of Kalyana (973 to 1189 AD) and their feudatories, the Hoysalas of Halebidu built fine temples, encouraged literature and fine arts. Noted jurist Vijnaneshwara (work: Mitakshara) lived at Kalyana. Great religious leader Basaveshwara was a minister at Kalyana. Vijayanagar empire (1336- 1646) fostered indigenous traditions and encouraged arts, religion and literature in Sanskrit, Kannada, Telugu and Tamil. Overseas trade flourished. The Bahamani Sultans (Capital: Gulbarga, later Bidar) and the Bijapur Adilshahis raised fine Indo-Saracenic buildings and encouraged Urdu and Persian literature. Advent of the Portuguese resulted in the introduction of new crops (tobacco, maize, chillies, groundnut, potato etc..

After the fall of the Peshwa (1818) and Tipu (1799), Karnataka came under the British. Christian missionaries introduced English education and printing during the 19th Century. Revolution in transport, communication and industries was evidenced. Urban middle class emerged. Mysore dynasty helped industrialisation and cultural growth. Freedom Movement was followed by the movement for the unification of Karnataka. After Independence, the new united Mysore State was created in 1956 and was renamed Karnataka in 1973.

Karnataka lies to the south of Goa and Maharashtra, to the west of Andhra Pradesh, to the west of Tamil Nadu and to the north of Kerala. It has a sea coast of nearly 400 km (300 with inundations).

Agriculture :
Agriculture and allied activities account for nearly 65 per cent of the work force in the State. Out of the geographical area of 1,90,49,836 hectare, 104,19,404 hectares is cultivable land. Major food crops are paddy, jowar, ragi, bajra, maize, wheat and pulses. The State stands 7th in oilseed production in the country. The production of foodgrains in the State increased from 76.04 lakh tonnes in 1990-93 to 93.97 lakh tonnes during 1996-97.

Horticultural crops are grown in an area of 18 lakh hectare with an annual production of 124 lakh tonnes valued at Rs 6,000 crore. The area under forests is 30,62,391 hectares which constitutes about 20.10 per cent of the total geographical area. The State has constituted five National parks and 21 wildlife sanctuaries to conserve wildlife in general and endangered species in particular. Two project Tigers.one at Bandipur National Park and another at Bhadra wildlife sanctuary have been created to preserve the endangered Tiger population.

Industry and Minerals :
Karnataka contributes four per cent of the National production in the industrial sector, and 20 per cent to the State income. Public sector undertakings include Bharat Earth Movers, Bharat Electronics, Bharat Heavy Electricals, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Hindustan Machine Tools, Indian Telephone Industries, Wheel and Axle, New Government Electric Factory and Mangalore Chemicals and Fertilizers. There are a number of factories under joint and private sectors and also small scale industries. Some of the manufactured items include aircraft, rail coaches, telephone instruments, electronic and telecommunication equipments, glass, batteries, spark plugs, electric motors, textiles, silk, sandal oil, electrical goods, porcelain, sugar, caustic soda, paper including newsprint, capacitors, mining metal tools, cement, motor cycles, fertilizers, etc. The Visveswaraiah Iron and Steel Limited, Bhadravati now owned by SAIL produces special steel, alloy and ferro silicon with a rated capacity of Iron-11,097, Manganese - 1,34,585, Copper-87,802 (in tonnes); Gold-429 kg and Silver-380 kg per year. Another important project of the State is the Kudremukh Iron Ore Project at Malleshwara in Chikmagalur district.

There are about 9,780 large and medium industries in the State with an investment of Rs 15,65,454 crore providing employment to about 8,68,932 persons. There are more than 2.23 lakh small scale industrial units with an investment of Rs 2,800 crore providing employment to nearly 14 lakh persons. Karnataka stands first in the production of electronic equipment and raw silk. The State is famous for its sandal soap and sandal wood oil.

The State is rich in mineral resources. Important minerals are high grade iron ore, copper, manganese, chromite, china clay, limestone and magnesite. Karnataka has the distinction of being the main gold producing State in the country. It is the sole producer of Felsite and leading producer of moulding sand and Fuchsite Quartizite. The State has rich deposits of granite.

Irrigation and Power :
Karnataka has the basins of the Krishna (58.66 per cent), Cauvery (18.97 per cent), Godavari (2.32 per cent), North Pennar (3.64 per cent), South Pennar (1.97 per cent), Palar (1.56 per cent) and west flowing rivers (12.88 per cent), basins with a drainage area of 2,600 sq km. The average annual yield of the rivers has been estimated as 97,352 cum. The ultimate irrigation potential of the State from all sources has been estimated as about 55 lakh hectares consisting of 35 lakh hectares under major and medium, 10 lakh hectares under minor irrgation (surface) project and 10 lakh hectares under ground water resources.

The energy generated during 1997-98 was 15,449 MU whereas 71,472 MU was obtained from neighbouring States and Central projects. Important power projects are the Kalinadi Stage-I and Stage-II, Sharavathi and Gerusoppa (Varahi) and Shivasamudram Hydro Electric Projects. The State has a thermal power station at Raichur and another diesel unit at Yelahanka near Bangalore. An Atomic Power Plant is being installed at Kaiga near Karwar. The State had achieved 100 per cent electrification of villages as on 31 March 1989.

Roads :
Karnataka had 1,37,520 lakh km (1996-97) of motorable roads including 1,997 km of national highways. The surfaced road length with 0.87 lakh km constituted 65 per cent of the total road length.

Railways :
Rail network in Karnataka is 3,192 km which includes broad gauge (2,173 km), metre gauge (917 km) and narrow gauge (102 km). Nearly 300 km is under conversion.

Aviation :
Bangalore, Belgaum, Mangalore and Hubli are the main airports. Direct flight facilities to major cities of India are available from Bangalore.

Ports :
New Mangalore port is the main all-weather seaport in Karnataka which mainly handles cargo vessels. Special facilities for export of Kudremukh iron ore and to handle crude, coal, LPG, etc., were developed with Sea Bird project of the Indian Navy coming up near Karwar.

Tourist Centres :
Tourist attractions in the State are many in Bangalore with a variety of parks and industries; the former princely capital Mysore with the Brindavan Gardens and Srirangapattana nearby; Sharavanabelgola where the famous monolithic statue of Gomateshwara, 57 ft high stands; Belur, Halebidu and Somnathpura with the famous Hoysala monuments; Badami, Aihole and Pattadkal for the 1,300 year old rock-cut and structural temples; Hampi, the famous open air museum (ancient Vijayanagar); Gulbarga, Bidar and Bijapur, renowned for their Indo-saracenic monuments; Mangalore and Karwar for ports and beaches; Gokarna, Udupi; Dharmasthala, Melkote, Gangapura and Saundatti, are famous pilgrimage centres. Tourism department has identified 212 tourist sports in the State. The capital city of Bangalore is also a tourist attraction with its famous huge granite structure Vidhana Soudha and the beautiful Cubbon Park and Lalbhag.

Government :

Governor : V.S. Rama Devi

Chief Secretary : B.K. Bhattacharya

Chief Minister : S.M. Krishna

Chief Justice : Bhaskar Rao

Jurisdiction of : Karnataka State High Court

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S. No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. Bangalore 2,190 48,39,162 Bangalore
  2. Bangalore Rural 5,815 16,73,194 Bangalore
  3. Belgaum 13,415 35,84,000 Belgaum
  4. Bellary 9,885 18,90,092 Bellary
  5. Bidar 5,448 12,56,000 Bidar
  6. Bijapur 17,069 29,28,000 Bijapur
  7. Chikmagalur 7,201 10,17,283 Chikmagalur
  8. Chitradurga 10,852 21,80,443 Chitradurga
  9. Dakshina Kannada 8,441 26,94,264 Mangalore
  10. Dharwad 13,738 35,03,150 Dharwad
  11. Gulbarga 16,224 25,82,169 Gulbarga
  12. Hassan 6,814 15,70,000 Hassan
  13. Kodagu 4,102 4,89,000 Madiker
  14. Kolar 8,223 22,17,000 Kolar
  15. Mandya 4,961 16,44,374 Mandya
  16. Mysore 11,954 31,65,018 Mysore
  17. Raichur 14,017 23,10,000 Raichur
  18. Shimoga 10,553 19,10,000 Shimoga
  19. Tumkur 10,598 23,06,000 Tumkur
  20. Uttara Kannada 10,291 12,20,260 Karwar

Note : Seven new districts, viz., Bagalkote, Devanagre, Gadag, Haveri, Koppal, Udupi and Chamarajanagara have been created in 1997.

KeralaTop ⇮

Area : 38,863 sq km

Population : 2,90,98,518

Capital : Thiruvananthapuram Principal

Languages : Malayalam


History And Geography :

To a large extent the ancient history of Kerala is shrouded in the mists of tradition. the most popular legend is that Kerala was raised from the depths of the ocean. Parasurama, one of the incarnations of Vishnu had waged an epic series of vengeful wars on the Kshatriyas. A time came, when Parasurama was struck by remorse at the wanton annihilation he had wrought. He offered severe penance atop the mountain heights. In a mood of profound atonement, the sage heaved his mighty axe into the midst of the distant ocean. Waves foamed and frothed as a crescent shaped stretch of land extending from Gokarnam to Kanyakumari surfaced from the depth of the sea. Legend apart, Kerala,s culture has been an integral part of the mainstream of Indian culture.

Its history is the story synthesis, assimilation and fusion of old traditions and new values in every sphere of human thought and activity. In between the high western ghats on the east and the Arabian sea on the west, the width of the State varies from 35 km to 120 km. According to the geographical features, the State can be divided into hills and valleys, midland plains and coastal belt.

Agriculture :
Agriculture forms the main occupation of the people. About 50 per cent of the population depend upon agriculture for their livelihood. A unique feature of the State is the predominance of cash crops. Kerala is a major producer of coconut, rubber, pepper, cardamom, ginger, cocoa, cashew, arecanut, coffee and tea. Tree spices like nutmeg, cinnamon, cloves, etc., are also cultivated. Rice and tapioca are important food crops. Coconut is the most important cash crop of Kerala while pepper earns the maximum foreign exchange.

Banana, pineapple, mango and jackfruit are major fruit crops. Kerala is not self-sufficient in food production. The State has a gross cropped area of 3.87 lakh hectares under paddy cultivation during 1997-98. Although Kerala has lost its leading position in the production of coconuts with only 41 per cent of the total national production, it continues to be the predominent supplier of milling copra.

During the 1997-98 the State continues to hold the monopoly in pepper production. The State accounts for more than 86 per cent of the area under rubber, 53 per cent under cardamom, 27 per cent under coffee and 9 per cent under tea. The area under rubber in the State, during 1997-98 was 4.63 lakh hectares.

Industry :
Kerala is rich in industrial potentialities and infrastructure facilities such as hydro-electric power, rich forests, rare minerals like ilmenite and monozite and the efficient system of transport and communications. Traditional industries are handloom, cashew, coir and handicrafts. Other important industries are rubber, tea, ceramics, electric and electronic appliances, telephone cables, transformers, bricks and tiles, drugs and chemicals, general engineering, plywood splints and veneers, Beedi and cigar, soaps, oils, fertilizers and Khadi and village industry products.

A number of manufacturing units have also sprung-up for production of precision instruments, machine tools, petroleum and petroleum products, paints, pulp paper, newsprint, glass and non-ferrous metals. Principal export products are cashewnut, tea, coffee, spices, lemongrass oil, sea foods, rose wood and coir. The State has an abundance of important minerals like ilmenite, rutile, monazite, zircon, sillimanite, clay and quartz sand.

Total number of industrial units in Kerala as on 31 March 1998 was 474. There are 110 public sector undertakings in the State. Out of 34 units established up to March 1999 27 Technopark are in the field of Information Technology. The Software Technology Parks of India is already running complexes in Thiruvananthapuram with 17 units functioning under its umbrella directly and three other units in private premises, all engaged primarily in the export of computer software from the country. Thirty one companies with a total capital investment of Rs 6,545 lakh are functioning at Technopark in Thiruvananthapuram. There are about 1,91,672 persons employed in the Khadi and village industries sector in the State.

Irrigation and Power :
The irrigation system in Kerala is serviced through major, medium and minor irrigation as well as ground water and command area develpment programmes. Major irrigation projects are Malampuzha, Chalakkudy, Peechi, Pamba, Periyar, Chittoorpuzha, Kuttiyadi, Neyyar and Chimmini. The medium projects are Pothundy, Gayathri, Valayar, Vazhani, Mangalam and Cheerakuzhi. Construction works of seven major irrigation projects.Kallada, Pazhassi, Muvattupuzha, Idamalayar, Karappara-Kuriarkutty, Chaliar and Kanjirappuzha are in progress.

Investment made up to March 1998 on irrigation sector in the State aggregates to Rs 2,307 crore against which the investment on major and medium irrigation works out to Rs 1,604 crore. The installed capacity in the Kerala State Electricity Board was 1775.78 MW as on 31 March 1998. This has been enhanced to 1797.10 MW by commissioning the fourth unit (21.32 MW) of Brahmapuram Diesel Power Station. NTPC also commissioned the first phase of Kayamkulam Thermal Power Station (115.3 MW). The benefit from this power plant is available exclusively to the State. It is expected that the State will achieve self sufficiency in power by 2002 AD. This will enable the State to make available 4469 MW by 2002 AD, as against the total peak demand of 3226 MW. The works of 220 KV.DC lines namely Idukki Lower Periyar, Lower Periyar-Thrissur, Lower Periyar-Kochi (Brahmapuram) are expected to be completed during 1999.

Roads :
The length of roads in the State as on 31 March 1999 is 2,19,805 km. The national highways that pass through the State are NH 17, NH 47 and NH 49 with a total length of 1,011 km.

Railways :
The State has a total railway route length of 1,050 km and covers 13 railway routes. It has 933 km of broad guage lines and 117 km of meter guage lines.

Aviation :
There are three airports, viz., Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi and Kozhikode; of which the first two are international airports.

Ports :
Among 16 ports, Kochi the only major port in the State. There are three intermediate ports and 12 minor ports.

Festivals :
Kerala is the home of many colourful festivals. Most of them have a religious fervour inspired by Hindu mythology. Almost every village has its own fairs and festivals and festivities. Onam is the most typical Kerala festival which has now earned an all-India character. It coincides with harvest season and is an occasion of spontaneous revelry. Onam celebrates home coming of Mahabali, legendary king, who rules over Kerala in an age of plenty but was pushed down to infernal regions by Vishnu in the form of Vamana. It is now celebrated as a national festival under government auspices. Visu is another festival celebrated on astronomical New Year Day. Navarathri is celebrated as Saraswathi Pooja in Kerala. Mahashivarathri is celebrated on the banks of Periyar river as a spectacular festival which is compared to Kumbha Mela.

The 41-day festival which coincides with Makaravilakku in Sabarimala Ayyappan temple attracts lakhs of people from India and abroad. The Vallamkali or boat race is typical of Kerala and except Nehru Trophy Boat Race conducted in the Punnamada Lake, all the boat festivals have a religious origin. Vadakkunnatha temple at Trichur celebrates Pooram festival in April every year with an impressive procession of caparisoned elephants and display of unparalleled pyrotechnics.

Main Christian festivals are Christmas and Easter. Maramon convention held every year on the Pumba river bed is the biggest gathering of Christians in Asia. The Muslims celebrate Bakrid, Ramzan and Muharram. Apart from this, they have Jarram and Nercha festivals.

Tourist Centres :
Kerala has the most attractive wildlife sanctuaries at Thekkady on the banks of river Periyar, at Parambikulam in Palakkad district and at Mananthavady, Sultan Batheri and at Wayanad. Kovalam is a renowned sea side resort. Padmanabaswami temple in Thiruvananthapuram is an exquisite specimen of South Indian architecture. Subarimala temple of Lord Ayyappa is a famous pilgrim tourist centre in Pathanamthitta district. Thiruvananthapuram, the capital city is an abode of temples, mosques and churches. Veli lagoon, Neyyardam and Ponmudi the famous hill stations are the other tourist centres in and around Thiruvananthapuram.

Veli provides boat ride facilities. Kalady the birth place of Adi Sankara, Lord Krishna Temple at Guruvayoor, Backel beach (Kasaragode), Malamppuzha at Palakkad, Pookkode lake, Kurvadeweep, Pakshipathalam and Edakkal caves in Waynad are notable tourist centres. Munnar and Peermade are the two famous hill resorts of Kerala. Back water tourism also is fast growing in the State. The famous Kathakali centre, Kalamandalam in Thrissur district is a place of interest for lovers of performing arts.

Government :

Governor : Justice Sukhdev Singh Kang

Chief Secretary : M. Mohan Kumar

Chief Minister : E.K. Nayanar

Chief Justice : A.R. Lakshmanan (Acting)

Speaker : M. Vijayakumar

Jurisdiction of : Kerala and High Court Lakshadweep

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S. No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. Alappuzha 1,414 20,01,217 Alappuzha
  2. Ernakulam 2,407 28,17,236 Ernakulam
  3. Idukki 5,019 10,78,006 Painavu
  4. Kannur 2,996 22,51,727 Kannur
  5. Kasaragode 4,992 10,71,508 Kasaragode
  6. Kollam 2,491 24,07,566 Kollam
  7. Kottayam 2,203 18,28,271 Kottayam
  8. Kozhikode 2,345 26,19,941 Kozhikode
  9. Malappuram 3,550 30,96,330 Malappuram
  10. Palakkad 4,480 23,82,235 Palakkad
  11. Pathanamthitta 2,642 11,88,352 Pathanamthitta
  12. Thiruvananthapuram 2,192 29,46,650 Thiruvananthapuram
  13. Thrissur 3,032 27,37,311 Thrissur
  14. Waynad 2,132 6,72,128 Kalpetta

LakshadweepTop ⇮

Area : 32 sq km

Population : 51,681

Capital : Kavaratti Principal

Languages : Malayalam


History And Geography :

Not much is known of the early history of these islands. The islands supposed to have been inhabited first are Amini, Kalpeni, Andrott, Kavaratti and Agatti. It was earlier believed that the islanders were originally Hindus and converted to Islam under the influence of Arab traders sometime in the 14th century. But archaeological evidence recently unearthed indicates that there were Buddhist settlements around sixth or seventh centuries and the earliest Muslim converts or settlers predate the year 139 AH of the Hijra year (eighth century) of which date gravestones have recently been discovered in Agatti. This would tend to bear out the local tradition that Islam was brought to the islands by the Arab Saint, Ubaidulla in 41 AH.

Probably independent till the 16th century the islanders were driven to seek the assistance of Raja of Chirakkal to help rid them of the Portuguese attempt to establish domination. This enabled him to establish his authority and, later, the islands were transferred in jagir to Ali Raja, head of Moplah community in Cannanore, who later became an independent ruler himself. The Arakkal rule was not popular, and in 1787, Tipu Sultan acceded to the petitions of northern islanders to annex these islands. After the fall of Tipu Sultan, the islands were passed to East India Company but continued to be ruled de facto by the rulers of Cannanore till their ultimate annexation by the British in the early 20th century.

In 1956, the islands were constituted into a single territory, and since then, have been directly administered by the Union Government through an Administrator. The Laccadives, Minicoy and Amindivi group of islands were renamed as Lakshadweep in 1973. Lakshadweep, a group of coral islands consist of 12 atolls, three reefs and submerged sand banks. Of the 36 islands, only 11 are inhabited. These lie scattered in the Arabian Sea about 280 km to 480 km off Kerala coast between 8º and 12º 3' north latitude and 71º and 74º east longitude.

Agriculture :
Coconut is the only major crop with a production of 27.7 million nuts per year. Area under cultivation is about 27.50 sq km.

Fisheries :
Fishing is another major activity. The sea around the island is highly productive. The islands stand first in the country in per capita availability of fish.

Industry :
Coconut fibre extraction and conversion of its fibre products are the main industry in the Islands. Under government sector there are seven coir fibre factories, seven coir production-cum-demonstration centres and four fibre curling units, functioning under coir sector. These units have produced around 400 MT coir fibre and 50 MT coir yarn in addition to other coir products like curled fibre, corridor mat, mat and mattings during 1997-98. These kind of small coir units are also functioning under private sector in different islands.

Transport :
MV Tipu Sultan, MV Bharath Seema and MV Dweep Setu carry passengers to and from the islands to Cochin and Beypore ports, MV Ubaidulla, MV Thinnakara, MV Laccadives and MV Cheriyam carry cargo to islands from mainland. MV Suheli 60 MT oil barge is mainly utilised for providing bunker (fuel) to inter island farry vessels. Kadeeja Beevi and Humeedath Bi ply between all islands other than Minicoy. Besides there is an island to island and island to mainland helicopter service. Indian Airlines connects Agatti and Kochi daily and Agatti and Goa twice weekly.

Tourist Centres :
Winner of National tourism award for most eco-friendly organisation for the year 1996-97, tourism is developing into an important industry. During 1997- 98 out of 4,391 tourists visiting the islands, 1,162 tourists visited international tourist resort Bangaram.

Government :

Administrator : Chaman Lal

Jurisdiction of High Court : Falls under jurisdiction of Kerala High Court

MaharashtraTop ⇮

Area : 3,07,713 sq km

Population : 7,89,37,187

Capital : Mumbai Principal

Languages : Marathi


History And Geography :

The first well-known rulers of Maharashtra were the Satavahanas (230 BC to 225 AD), who were the founders of Maharashtra, and have left a plethora of literary, epigraphic, artistic and archaeological evidence. This epoch marks tremendous development in every field of human endeavour.

Then came the Vakatakas who established a pan-Indian empire. Under them Maharashtra witnessed an all-sided development in the fields of learning, arts and religion. Some of the Ajanta Caves and fresco painting reached the high-level mark during their rule. After the Vakatakas and after a brief interlude of the Kalachuri dynasty, the most important rulers were the Chalukyas followed by the Rashtrakutas and the Yadavas apart from the Shilaharas on the coast. The Yadavas, with Marathi as their court language, extended their authority over large parts of the Deccan.

While the Bahamani rule brought a degree of cohesion to the land and its culture, a uniquely homogeneous evolution of Maharashtra as an entity became a reality under the able leadership of Shivaji. A new sense of Swaraj and nationalism was evolved by Shivaji. His noble and glorious power stalled the Mughal advances in this part of India. The Peshwas established the Maratha supremacy from the Deccan Plateau to Attock in Punjab. Maharashtra was in the forefront in the freedom struggle and it was here that the Indian National Congress was born. A galaxy of leaders from Mumbai and other cities in Maharashtra led the Congress movement under the guidance of Tilak and then Mahatma Gandhi. Maharashtra was the home of Gandhiji.s movement, while Sevagram was the capital of nationalistic India during the Gandhian era.

The administrative evolution of the state of Maharashtra is the outcome of the linguistic reorganisation of the States of India, effected on 1 May 1960. The State was formed by bringing together all contiguous Marathi speaking areas, which previously belonged to four different administrative hegemonicsthe district between Daman and Goa that formed part of the original British Bombay Province; five districts of the Nizam.s dominion of Hyderabad; eight districts in the south of the Central Provinces (Madhya Pradesh) and a sizeable number of petty native ruled state enclaves lying enclosed within the above areas, which later merged with adjoining districts. Located in the north centre of Peninsular India, with a command of the Arabian Sea through its port of Mumbai, Maharashtra has a remarkable physical homogeneity, enforced by its underlying geology. The dominant physical trait of the State is its plateau character. Maharashtra is a plateau of plateaus, its western upturned rims rising to form the Sahyadri Range parallel to the sea-coast and its slopes gently descending towards the east and south-east. Satpuda ranges cover northern part of the State, while Ajanta and Satmala ranges run through central part of the State. Arabian Sea guards the western boundary of Maharashtra, while Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh are on the northern side. Madhya Pradesh also covers the eastern boundary of the State. Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh are on its southern side. The State receives its rainfall mainly from south-west monsoon. There is heavy rainfall in the coastal region (around 2000 mm), scanty rains in rain shadow areas in the central part (about 500 mm) and moderate rains in eastern parts (around 1000 mm) of the State.

Agriculture :
About 61 per cent of the total workers in the State depend on agriculture and allied activities. Net irrigated area is about 33.50 lakh hectare. Principal crops grown in the State are rice, jowar, bajra, wheat, tur, mung, udid, gram and other pulses. The State is a major producer of oilseeds. Groundnut, sunflower, soyabean are major oil seed crops. Important cash crops are cotton, sugarcane, turmeric and vegetables. The State has also a large area under horticulture and has an area of 10.91 lakh hectares under various fruit crops like mango, banana, orange, grape, cashewnut, etc.

Industry :
With its key location, linking the northern and southern parts of the country, Maharashtra has firmly established itself as India.s most pro-business State. The State has been identified as the country.s powerhouse and Mumbai, its capital as the centre point of India.s financial and commercial markets. Industrial sector occupies a prominent position in the economy of Maharashtra. Food products, breweries, tobacco and related products, cotton textiles, textile products, paper and paper products, printing and publishing, rubber, plastic, petroleum and coal products, basic chemicals and chemical products, metal products and parts, machinery (except electrical machinery), electrical machinery, apparatus and appliances, and transport equipment and parts contribute substantially to the industrial production in the state.

In the year 1997-98, the manufacturing sector (registered and unregistered together) contributed 24.5 per cent to the total State income, while agriculture sector contributed 15.2 per cent.

As per the annual survey of industries, the State has more than 1/4th share in the value of output for the country, in respect of the following industries: chemical and chemical products, rubber, plastics petroleum and coal products, metal products and parts, machinery and equipment (except transport equipment), transport equipments and parts, other manufacturing industries, repair of capital goods and water works.

A number of manufacturing units have also sprung-up for production of precision instruments, machine tools, petroleum and petroleum products, paints, pulp paper, newsprint, glass and non-ferrous metals. Principal export products are cashewnut, tea, coffee, spices, lemongrass oil, sea foods, rose wood and coir. The State has an abundance of important minerals like ilmenite, rutile, monazite, zircon, sillimanite, clay and quartz sand.

Total number of industrial units in Kerala as on 31 March 1998 was 474. There are 110 public sector undertakings in the State. Out of 34 units established up to March 1999 27 Technopark are in the field of Information Technology. The Software Technology Parks of India is already running complexes in Thiruvananthapuram with 17 units functioning under its umbrella directly and three other units in private premises, all engaged primarily in the export of computer software from the country. Thirty one companies with a total capital investment of Rs 6,545 lakh are functioning at Technopark in Thiruvananthapuram. There are about 1,91,672 persons employed in the Khadi and village industries sector in the State.

Irrigation and Power :
By the end of June 1998, 33 major, 177 medium and about 1,835 state sector minor irrigation projects have been completed. Another 27 major, 86 medium and 263 minor irrigation projects are under construction. The gross irrigated area at the end of June 1998 was nearly about 33.50 lakh hectare. Maharashtra State had an installed capacity of 12238 MW. In the year 1997-98, Chandrapur Thermal Power Station (Unit No. 7 of 500 MW), 150 MW Pumped Storage Scheme and 6 MW Manikdoh Hydro Power Station were commissioned. This includes 8231 MW MSEB.s share, 1774 MW Tata.s share, 500 MW BSES.s share, 190 MW Tarapur Atomic Power Centre.s share and 1543 MW NTPC.s share.

The Plant Load Factor (PLF) in the State was 68.2 per cent in 1997- 98. The peak demand has also been increasing and it was 9473 MW in the year 1997-98 which went up to 9719 MW during the year 1998-99. Because of the improved PLF position, the power availability has also improved and this has led to increased generation. In the year 1996-97, generation was 54,037 million KWH which went up to 55,384 million KWH in the year 1997-98. During the Ninth Five Year Plan, about 400 MW power generation on Bagasse-based projects is expected. Maharashtra Energy Development Agency (MEDA) has taken initiative to commission 5.5 MW wind power projects. Also proposals for total 41 MW wind power projects have been received from private parties for permission. There is enough scope for power generation from solid/liquid waste in Maharashtra and about 100 MW power is expected to be produced in the near future.

It is expected that the State may have total installed capacity of over 20000 MW by the end of the Ninth Five Year Plan.

Roads :
Total length of roads in the State is 1,91,053 km consisting of 2,972 km of national highways, 32,380 km of state highways, 41,166 km of major district roads, 41,701 km of other district roads, and 72,834 km of village roads.

Railways :
Maharashtra has 5,465 km of railway routes of which about 4,040 km is broad gauge, 510 km meter gauge and 915 km is narrow gauge.

Aviation :
Maharashtra has a total of twenty-four Air fields/Airports. Out of these 17 are under the control of the State government, four are managed and controlled by the International Airport Authority/Airport Authority of India and the remaining three are manned and managed by the Ministry of Defence. The Airports under the control of the State government are : Amaravati, Baramati, Chandrapur, Dhule, Gondia, Jalgaon, Karad, Kolhapur, Kinwat, Latur, Nanded, Osmanabad, haltan, Ratnagiri, Sangli, Sholapur, and Yavatmal. At present these Airfields have no facilities for the operation of commercial flights.

Ports :
Mumbai is the major port in Maharashtra. There are 54 minor ports in the State.

Tourist Centres :
Some important tourist centres are : Ajanta, Ellora, Elephanta, Kanheri and Karla caves, Mahabaleshwar, Matheran and Panchgani, Jawhar, Malshejghat, Amboli, Chikaldara, Panhala Hill stations and religious places at Pandharpur, Nashik, Shirdi, Nanded, Audhanagnath, Trimbakeshwar, Tuljapur, Ganpatipule, Bhimashanker, Harihareshwar and Shegaon.

Government :

Governor : Dr P.C. Alexander

Chief Secretary : A.L. Bongirwar

Chief Minister : Vilas Rao Desmukh

Chief Justice : Y.K. Sabharwal

Jurisdiction of : Maharashtra and Goa High Court

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S. No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. Ahmednagar 17,048 3,373 Ahmednagar
  2. Akola 5,429 1,352 Akola
  3. Amravati 12,210 2,200 Amravati
  4. Aurangabad 10,107 2,214 Aurangabad
  5. Bhandara 9,321 2,108 Bhandara
  6. Beed 10,693 1,822 Beed
  7. Mumbai City 69 3,175 Mumbai City
  8. Mumbai (Sub.) 534 6,751 Bandra
  9. Buldhana 9,661 1,886 Buldhana
  10. Chandrapur 11,443 1,772 Chandrapur
  11. Dhule 8,095 1,473 Dhule
  12. Gadchiroli 14,412 787 Gadchiroli
  13. Jalgaon 11,765 3,188 Jalgaon
  14. Jalna 7,718 1,364 Jalna
  15. Kolhapur 7,685 2,990 Kolhapur
  16. Latur 7,157 1,677 Latur
  17. Nagpur 9,892 3,237 Nagpur
  18. Nanded 10,528 2,330 Nanded
  19. Nashik 15,530 3,851 Nashik
  20. Osmanabad 7,569 1,276 Osmanabad
  21. Parbhani 11,041 2,117 Parbhani
  22. Pune 15,643 5,533 Pune
  23. Raigad 7,152 1,825 Alibag
  24. Ratnagiri 8,208 1,544 Ratnagiri
  25. Sangli 8,572 2,209 Sangli
  26. Satara 10,480 2,451 Satara
  27. Sindhudurg 5,207 832 Oras
  28. Solapur 14,895 3,231 Solapur
  29. Thane 9,558 5,249 Thane
  30. Wardha 6,309 1,067 Wardha
  31. Yavatmal 13,582 2,077 Yavatmal
  32. Nandurbar 5,055 1,063 Nandurbar
  33. Washim 5,155 862 Washim

Madhya PradeshTop ⇮

Area : 4,43,446 sq km

Population : 6,61,81,000

Capital : Bhopal Principal

Languages : Bhopal Principal


History And Geography :

Madhya Pradesh is centrally situated State of the country. King Ashok first of all ruled over Ujjain. A sizeable portion of Central India was part of the Gupta empire (300-500 AD.) The Muslims came into Central India in the beginning of 11th century. First of all Mahmud of Ghazni came over here and then Mohammad Gouri who incorporated some parts of Central India into his ruling territory of Delhi. Central India was also part of the Mughal empire. During the period between the beginning of the influence of Marathas and the death of Madhoji Scindia in 1794, Marathas were on the ascendant in Central India but later on the small states started coming into existence. These small states became the cause of perpetuation of British power in the country. Queen Ahilyabai Holkar of Indore, the Gaud Maharani Rani Kamala Devi and Queen Durgawati, etc., were some women rulers whose names have left an indelible imprint on Indian History for their outstanding rule. Madhya Pradesh came into being on 1 November 1956.

The State is surrounded by seven states. It is bounded by Rajasthan on the north west, by Uttar Pradesh on the north, by Bihar on the north-east, by Orissa on the east, by Andhra Praesh and Maharashtra on the south and Gujarat on the west. About 23.3 per cent of the total population of the State belong to scheduled tribes. One-fifth of the total population of scheduled tribes of the country lives in Madhya Pradesh.

Agriculture :
Agriculture is the mainstay of State.s economy as 76.8 per cent of the total population lives in rural areas. About 43.7 per cent area of the state is cultivable. Net irrigated area is 6.304 million hectares, which was 31.6 per cent of net sown area in 1997-98. Madhya Pradesh is the leading producer of oilseeds, pulses, soyabean, gram and linseed. Wheat, rice, jowar, sugarcane, cotton, tuar, mustard are the other principal crops grown in the state. During 1997-98, total foodgrain production was 17.31 million metric tonne, oilseed production was 5.77 million metric tonne, soyabean production 4.92 million metric tonne, cotton 504 thousand bales (one bale weights 170 kg) and production of jagged sugar (gur) from sugarcane was 211 thousand tonne in the state.

Industry and Minerals :
Madhya Pradesh has entered the era of high-tech industries such as petrochemicals, electronics, telecommunications, automobiles, etc. Madhya Pradesh is producing optical fibre for telecommunication needs. A large number of automobile industries have been established at Pithampur near Indore. Prominent industries in the public sector in the State are Bhilai Steel Plant, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited at Bhopal, Bharat Aluminium Company at Korba, Security Paper Mill at Hoshangabad, Bank Note Press at Dewas, Newsprint Factory at Nepanagar and Alkaloid Factory at Neemuch. There are 22 textile mills in the State manufacturing 24.83 million metre cloth in 1997- 98. Besides 78.4 million metre cloth was manufactured in the handloom sector and 322 million metre cloth by the powerlooms. Total production of saleable steel in 1997-98 was 3.52 million tonne while that of aluminium 88.2 thousand tonne. Production of cement touched 15.61 million tonne mark. The state produced about 37.5 thousand tonne newsprint. An Air Cargo Complex, Indo- German Tool Room and an Inland Container Depot are being established at Pithampura.

The State is famous for its traditional handicrafts and handloom cloths manufactured at Chanderi and Maheswar. Madhya Pradesh is the leading State in the country in mineral production. At present, 25 types of minerals are being mined in the State. The combined value of minerals produced in the State is about Rs 5,078 crore which is 24 per cent (barring oil and natural gas) of the total production of minerals in the country in 1997-98. Coal, bauxite, iron-ore, manganese-ore, rockphosphate, dolomite, copper-ore, limestone are being mined on a large scale. Madhya Pradesh is the only State where tin and diamonds are produced. During 1997-98 production of coal and iron ore was 85.65 million tonnes and 18.11 million tonnes respectively. Production of diamond was about 31,000 carats and that of bauxite 6.44 lakh tonnes. Production of lime-stone was 25.45 million tonnes and that of copper-ore 2.08 million tonnes during 1997-98.

Irrigation and Power :
The area under irrigation is 6.31 million hectares in 1997-98. Of this 1.28 million hectares is under paddy, 3.17 million hectares under wheat and 0.93 million hectares under pulses. Since 1990, there is a marked increase in wheat crop and pulses under irrigated areas. Wells are the biggest source of irrigation covering 3.50 million hectare, while canals are irrigating an area of 1.78 million hectares.

The installed capacity of power in the State at present is 3,816 MW of which 848 MW is hydel power. Besides, share of Madhya Pradesh in electricity generated by Central Undertakings is about 1773 MW. Nearly, 95 per cent of the villages numbering 67,959 have been electrified. As many as 12.29 lakh irrigation pump sets have been energised. Facility of single point connections has been provided to 25.06 lakh households. Concrete measures have been taken to tap non-conventional energy sources like wind, solar and bio-gas in the State. Biomass Gasifiers of 10 MW capacity are coming up. A 15 MW commerical wind farm has been established near Dewas and in its first phase a 4 MW unit has been operationalised.

Railways :
The main rail route linking northern India with southern India passes through Madhya Pradesh. Main junctions in the State are Bhopal, Bilaspur, Bina, Gwalior, Indore, Itarsi, Jabalpur, Katni, Ratlam and Ujjain. The total length of rail routes in the State is 5,761.5 km. The divisional railways headquarters are at Bhopal, Ratlam, Jabalpur and Bilaspur.

Aviation :
There are airports at Bhopal, Gwalior, Indore, Khajuraho and Raipur with regular scheduled air services to Mumbai and Delhi, Varanasi and Nagpur, Raipur and Bhubaneswar.

Festivals :
The tribal people of Bastar celebrate Dussehra exhibiting their unity and faith. Another important tribal festival is Bhagoriya in Jhabua marked by traditional gaiety and enthusiasm. Shivratri as celebrated in Khajuraho, Bhojpur, Pachmarhi and Ujjain has its own local flavour while Ramnavami festival in Chitrakoot and Orchha has unique sense of devotion imbued with tradition. Festivals of Orchha, Malwa and Pachmarhi bring to the fore, repertoire of culture and art of the people. Tansen Music Festival, Gwalior; Ustad Alauddin Khan Music Festival of Maihar; Kalidas Samaroh, Ujjain and festival of dances at Khajuraho make Madhya Pradesh cynosure of art lovers.

Tourist Centres :
Perfectly preserved medieval cities, refreshing and enchanting wildlife sanctuaries, nature at its glamorous best and some of the holiest and most revered pilgrims centres offer to the tourist, the most fulfilling experience. Tranquil beauty of Pachmarhi, glittering splendour of Marble rocks and roaring sound of Dhuandhar Fall at Bhedaghat, Kanha National Park with its unique Hardgound Barasingha and Bandhavgarh National Park with its forts, prehistoric caves and wildlife are only glimpses of enormous natural wealth of the state. Treasure-chest of Madhya Pradesh is overflowing with its forts, palaces, stupas, caves and monuments. Gwalior, Mandu, Datia, Chanderi, Jabalpur, Orchha, Raisen, Sanchi, Vidisha, Udaygiri, Bhimbetka, Indore and Bhopal are the places well known for their monuments of by gone era. Maheshwar, Omkareshwar, Ujjain, Chitrakoot and Amarkantak are the places which provide solace to the soul of pilgrim. The temples of Khajuraho are unique in the world. Besides, temples at Orchha, Bhojpur, Udaipur attract connoisseurs as well as pilgrims. Archaeological treasures are preserved in the museums at Satna, Sanchi, Vidisha, Gwalior, Indore, Mandsaur, Ujjain, Rajgarh, Bhopal, Jabalpur, Raipur, Bilaspur, Rewa and many other places.

Government :

Governor : Dr. Bhai Mahavir

Chief Secretary : K.S. Sharma

Chief Minister :Digvijay Singh

Chief Justice : Justice A.K. Mathur

Speaker : Shriniwas Tiwari

Jurisdiction of : Madhya Pradesh High Court

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S. No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. Balaghat 9,229 13,62,731 Balaghat
  2. Bastar 39,114 22,70,472 Jagdalpur
  3. Betul 10,043 11,80,527 Betul
  4. Bhind 4,459 12,14,480 Bhind
  5. Bhopal 2,772 13,50,302 Bhopal
  6. Bilaspur 19,897 37,96,553 Bilaspur
  7. Chhatarpur 8,687 11,58,853 Chhatarpur
  8. Chhindwara 11,815 15,63,332 Chhindwara
  9. Damoh 7,306 8,97,544 Damoh
  10. Datia 2,038 3,97,743 Datia
  11. Dewas 7,020 10,32,522 Dewas
  12. Dhar 8,153 13,66,626 Dhar
  13. Durg 8,537 23,98,497 Durg
  14. East Nimar 10,779 14,32,855 Khandwa
  15. Guna 11,065 13,09,451 Guna
  16. Gwalior 5,214 14,14,948 Gwalior
  17. Hoshangabad 10,037 13,65,970 Hoshangabad
  18. Indore 3,898 18,30,870 Indore
  19. Jabalpur 10,160 26,45,232 Jabalpur
  20. Jhabua 6,782 11,29,356 Jhabua
  21. Mandla 13,269 12,91,313 Mandla
  22. Mandsaur 9,791 15,55,481 Mandsaur
  23. Morena 11,594 17,07,619 Morena
  24. Narsinghpur 5,133 7,84,523 Narsinghpur
  25. Panna 7,135 6,84,721 Panna
  26. Raigarh 12,924 17,24,420 Raigarh
  27. Raipur 21,258 39,02,609 Raipur
  28. Raisen 8,466 8,77,369 Raisen
  29. Rajgarh 6,154 9,92,315 Rajgarh
  30. Rajnandgaon 11,127 14,39,524 Rajnandgaon
  31. Ratlam 4,861 9,71,309 Ratlam
  32. Rewa 6,314 15,50,140 Rewa
  33. Sagar 10,252 16,46,198 Sagar
  34. Satna 7,502 14,62,412 Satna
  35. Sehore 6,578 8,40,427 Sehore
  36. Seoni 8,758 9,99,762 Seoni
  37. Shahdol 14,028 17,43,068 Shahdol
  38. Shajapur 6,196 10,32,520 Shajapurv
  39. Shivpuri 10,278 11,31,933 Shivpuri
  40. Sidhi 10,256 13,71,935 Sidhi
  41. Sarguja 22,337 20,82,930 Ambikapur
  42. Tikamgarh 5,048 9,40,609 Tikamgarh
  43. Ujjain 6,091 13,86,465 Ujjain
  44. Vidisha 2,742 9,71,097 Vidisha
  45. West Nimar 13,450 20,26,317 Khargone

Besides, 16 new districts have been carved out. These include (1) Badwani, (2) Shyopure, (3) Dindori, (4) Koria (Baikunthpur), (5) Jashpur, (6) Janjgir-Champa, (7) Korba, (8) Kanker, (9) Dantewada, (10) Katni, (11) Neemuch, (12) Umaria, (13) Mahasamund, (14) Dhamtari, (15) Harda and (16) Kavardha.

ManipurTop ⇮

Area : 22,327 sq km

Population : 18,37,149

Capital : Imphal Principal

Languages : Manipuri


History And Geography :

Not much of recorded history of Manipur is available though it has been in existence since time immemorial. According to the historians, Pakhangba ascended the throne of one of the seven main principalities in 33 AD and founded a long dynasty which ruled Manipur till 1891. Manipur came under the British Rule in 1891 and later on it was merged in the Indian Union as part .C. State on 15 October 1949. In 1950-51, an advisory form of govenment was introduced. In 1957 this was replaced by a Territorial Council of 30 elected and two nominated members. Later in 1963, a Legislative Assembly of 30 elected and three nominated members was established under the Union Territories Act, 1963. The status of the Administrator was raised from Chief Commissioner to the status of the Lt. Governor with effect from 19 December 1969. Manipur attained full-fledged statehood on 21 January 1972.

Geographically the State is divided into two tracts-the hills comprising of five districts and the plains with four districts. It is bounded by Myanmar on the east, Nagaland on the north, Assam on west and Mizoram on south and south west.

Agriculture :
Agriculture is the single largest source of livelihood of the majority of the rural masses and is also the mainstay of the State.s economy. From a modest beginning in 1946, the State has now got sufficinet number of trained manpower of its own to implement various schemes and programmes in agriculture.

Forest :
Total area under forest cover is 17,418 sq km of which 1,467 sq km fall under reserved forests while 4,171 sq km is protected forests and 11,780 sq km are unclassified forests. Manipur is the abode of Shiroy Lily (Lilium Macklinae), the paradise flower which is not found elsewhere in the world. The Dzuko valley is the only habitat of the endemic and the rarest species Dzuko Lili (Lilium Chitrangada). It is also the only home of the Brow Antlered Deer (Cervus-eldieldi) locally known as Sangai surviving in its natural habitat, the Keibul Lamjao, the only floating National Park in the world.

Industries :
Manipur is making rapid strides towards industrialisation and has registered 9,090 small scale industrial units providing employment to 46,390 persons with an investment of Rs 30.05 crore by March 1998. Special thrust has been directed to revitalistion programmes of the various industrial corporations and undertakings in the State. Rehabilitation of Manipur Spinning Mills Corporation Limited is on full swing with an allocation of Rs 2.47 crore for 1999-2000 as equity share. A sum of Rs 1.7 crore was released to the Manipur Handloom and Handicraft Development Corporation Limited during 1996-97. The Manipur Cement Limited has also been allocated Rs 110 lakh for rehabilitation programme during 1999-2000. Manipur Electronics Development Corporation Limited earned Rs 155.40 lakh during 1998-99. The Centre for Electronics Design and Technology and the Central Institute of Plastic Engineering and Technology have been established by the Government of India at Imphal to impart training to prospective entrepreneurs in the field of electronics and plastic industries respectively. One Growth Centre has been sanctioned at Lamlai-Nepet. One Integrated Infrastructural Development Centre (IIDC) has also been sanctioned at Moreh. As per guide lines of IIDC scheme it is targeted to provide 450 small scale and tiny units to generate employment for about 9,160 persons. One Export Promotion Industrial Park (EPIP) at Khunuta Chingjin and two trade centres at Moreh and Imphal have also been sanctioned by the Government of India. The trade centres will provide facilities to the traders and entrepreneurs of the State to further the border trade between India and Myanmar. A sum of Rs two crore has been released by the Government of India for the trade centres.

Irrigation and Power :
Within a short period of one and a half decades of introduction of major and medium irrigation schemes in the State, remarkable progress has been made bringing 59,100 hectare under the major and medium irrigation programme. The installed capacity was 12,447 KW in March 1996 and 1,749 villages had been electrified. Power supply position in the State showed a marked improvement with the availability of share of power from the Central Sector Generating Station, i.e., NHPC (Loktak HE Project and NEEPCO Kopili HE Project and Kathalgari Thermal Power Station).

Roads :
The State has 7,367 km of roads both metalled and unmetalled as on 31 March 1999. The length of road is: national highway 434 km, state highway 1,232 km, district roads 1,946 km and village roads 3,755 km.

Railways :
The State is now included in the railway map of India with the opening of rail head at Jiribam in May 1990.

Aviation :
Imphal is the only airport which is linked with other stations in the region by Indian Airlines and Jet Airways. The Indian Airlines flights connect Imphal to Silchar, Aizawl, Guwahati, Calcutta and Delhi. The Jet Airways flights connect Imphal to Guwahati and Calcutta.

Festivals :
Important festivals of the State are Dol-Jatra, Lai Haraoba including the Moirang Thangjing Lai Haraoba festival, Rasa Leela, Chieraoba, Ningol Chakkouba, Rath- Jatra, Kut, Lui-Ngai-Ni, Gang Ngai, Idul-Fitre, Idul Zuha and Christmas.

Tourist Centres :
Some important tourist centres in the State are : Shri Shri Govindaji Temple, Khwairamband Bazar (Ima Market), War Cemeteries, Shaheed Minar, Nupi Laal (Women.s War) Memorial, Imphal, Khonghampat Orchidarium, INA Memorial (Moirang), Loktak Lake, Keibul Lamjao National Park, Bishnu Temple at Bishnupur, Sendra, Moreh, Siroi Hills, Siroi Village, Dzuko Valley, etc.

Government :

Governor : Ved Marwah

Chief Secretary : H. Jel Shyam

Chief Minister : W. Nipamacha Singh

Chief Justice : Justice A.K. Mathur

Speaker : K. Babudhon Singh High Court Guwahati High Court, Imphal bench started functioning from 14 March 1992.

Jurisdiction of : A permanent bench of the

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S. No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. Bishnupur 496 1,78,903 Bishnupur
  2. Chandel 3,313 70,737 Chandel
  3. Churachandpur 4,570 1,76,043 Churachandpur
  4. Imphal 1,228 7,07,184 Imphal
  5. Senapati 3,271 2,06,933 Senapati
  6. Tamenglong 4,391 85,572 Tamenglong
  7. Thoubal 514 2,90,393 Thoubal
  8. Ukhrul 4,544 1,09,952 Ukhrul

MeghalayaTop ⇮

Area : 22,429 sq km

Population : 17,74,778

Capital : Shillong Principal

Languages : Khasi, Garo and English


History And Geography :

Meghalaya was created as an autonomous State within the State of Assam on 2 April 1970. The full-fledged State of Meghalaya came into existence on 21 January 1972. It is bound on the north and east by Assam and on the south and west by Bangladesh. Meghalaya literally meaning the abode of clouds is essentially a hilly state. It is now divided into seven administrative districts. They are : Jaintia Hills, East Garo Hills, West Garo Hills, East Khasi Hills, West Khasi Hills, Ri Bhoi and South Garo Hills district. These are predominantly inhabited by the Khasis, the Jaintias and the Garos. These tribal communities are the descendents of very ancient people having distinctive traits and ethnic origin. The Khasi Hills and Jaintia Hills which form the central and eastern parts of Meghalaya is an imposing plateau with rolling grassland, hills and river valleys. The southern face of this plateau is marked by deep gorges and abrupt slopes, at the foot of which, a narroow strip of plain land runs along the international border with Bangladesh..

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A number of rivers, none of them navigable, drain the mountainous State. In the Garo Hills, the Manda, the Darming and the Jinjiram flow towards the north while the Ringge and the Ganol flow in the western direction. Rivers flowing to the south are the Simsang which is the largest river in Garo Hills and the Bugi. In the Khasi and Jaintia Hills, the rivers that flow in a northern direction include the Khri, the Umtrew, the Umiam, the Umkhen besides the Kupli on the border between Jaintia Hills and North Cachar Hills. The Kynshi, the Umiam Mawphlang and the Umngot flow to the south into Bangladesh.

Agriculture :
Meghalaya is basically an agricultural State in which about 80 per cent of its total population depend primarily on agriculture for their livelihood. The hilly terrain and other topographical features, however, do not offer much scope for further extending the areas under foodgrain crops. The State has a vast potential for developing horticulture due to agroclimatic vaariations which offer much scope for cultivation of temperate, sub-tropical and tropical fruits and vegetables.

Besides the major food crops of rice and maize, Meghalaya is renowned for its oranges (Khasi Mandarian), pineapple, banana, jackfruits, temperate fruits like plum, pears and peaches etc. Cash crops, popularly and traditionally cultivated include potato, turmeric, ginger, blackpepper, arecanut, betelvine, tapioca, short staple cotton, jute and mesta, mustard and rape. Special emphasis is presently laid on non-traditional crops like oilseeds (groundnut, soyabean and sunflower), cashewnut, tea and coffee, mushroom, medicinal plants, orchids and commercial flowers.

The estimated irrigation potential of the State both from surface and ground water is about 2.18 lakh hectare, the potential created so far is 35,500 hectare.

Forest :
Total forest cover in the state is 15,769 sq km which corresponds to 70.3 per cent of the geographical area of the state. The principal timber species are sal, makrisal, khasi pines, birch, teak, titachap, gamari, sam, poma, khokan, etc. besides timber, the state is very rich in bamboo, reeds, cane, medicinal herbs and shrubs. The state is the storehouse of bio-genetic material. a large number of orchids grow naturally in the state. among the fauna, meghalaya is the home of cats from royal bengal tiger to the clouded leopard, leopard cat, wild cat, etc. the state is also the home of the binturong (arctictis binturong), a very rare animal. so also the hoolock (hylobates hoolock), the only true ape found in india. meghalaya is one of the states in the country having the highest concentration of elephants-per sq km of habitat. according to the elephant census 1993, the state has a total population of 2,872 elephants..

Industry and Minerals :
The public sector cement factory at Cherrapunjee has been re-activated to raise the production to 1,65,000 mt per annum. The tantalum capacitor unit of the Meghalaya Electronics Development Corporation at Umiam-Khawan is in production. The mini cement plant, one at Damas in East Garo Hills district and the other at Sutnga in Jaintia Hills district have also gone into production. The number of small scale industrial units covering service industry, bakeries, furniture making, iron and steel fabriction, tyre retreading, spice, etc., is increasing and the government is giving greater thrust on entrepreneurship development. The Meghalaya Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) is assisting the industrial units by way of term loans and also by participating in equity capital. Mineral wealth of Meghalaya include coal, silimanite, limestone, dolomite, fire-clay, felspar, quartz and glass-sand. The total estimated reserve of coal in the State is 562 million tonnes and that of limestone is around 4,500 million tonnes.

Wildlife :
Meghalaya is also rich in wildlife. There are elephants, tigers, bears, wild boars, leopards, golden cats, leopard cats and jungle cats, deer of various kinds, bintorongs, slow loris, monkeys of different types including capped langurs, golden langurs and hoolocks, flying squirrels and giant squirrels. There are also many rare and interesting birds including the hornbills, patridges, pheasants, teals, snipes, geese, ducks and quails. All these are protected by law. The State has two national parks, viz, the Nokrek National Park and the Balpakram National Park and two wildlife sanctuaries, namely the Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary and Siju Wildlife Sanctuary.

Festivals :
Ka Pamblang Nongkrem popularly known as Nongkrem dance is one of the most important festivals of the Khasis. It is a five-day religious festival held annually at Smit village 11 km from Shillong, the headquarters of the syiem (chief) of Khyrim. The festival is held as a thanks-giving ceremony to God Almighty for the harvest and to pray for peace and prosperity. Shad Sukmynsiem is another important festival of the Khasis. It means .Dance of the Joyful Heart. and is also a thanksgiving dance. Maidens dressed in traditional fineries and men folk in colourful costumes participate in the dance to the accompaniment of drums and flute. It is held in Shillong sometime during the second week of April every year and lasts for three days Behdiengkhlam, the most important festival of the Jaintias is celebrated annually at Jowai in Jaintia Hills during the month of July. It is very popular and colourful festival where men, young and old, take part in dancing to the tune of drums and flute. Wangala, one of the most important festivals of the Garos, is held during October-November, and it lasts for a week. This festival is observed to honour and offer sacrifices to their greatest god called Saljong (Sungod). The occasion is initiated, right in the field by a simple but impressive ceremony known as Rugula. After that the ceremony of incense known as Sasat Soa is celebrated. This is performed inside the house of the chief of the village. On this occasion people, young and old, boys and girls in their colourful costumes with feathered headgear dance to the tunes of music played on long oval shaped drums.

Tourist Centres :
Meghalaya is dotted with a number of lovely tourist spots where nature unveils herself in all her glory. Shillong, the capital city, has a number of beautiful spots. They are : Ward.s Lake, Lady Hydari Park, Polo Ground, Mini Zoo, Elephant Falls and Shillong peak overlooking the city and the golf course which is one of the best in the country.

Roads :
Three national highways pass through Meghalaya for a distance of 456.54 km. The State had 6,707 km of both surfaced and unsurfaced road in 1996-97.

Railways :
The State is not connected by railway network.

Aviation :
The only airport in the State at Umroi is located some 35 km from Shillong.

Government :

Governor : M.M. Jacob

Chief Secretary : J.P. Singh

Chief Minister : B.B. Lyngdoh

Jurisdiction of : Falls under the jurisdiction High Court of Guwahati High Court. There is a High Court Bench at Shillong.

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S. No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. East Garo Hills 2,603 1,88,830 Williamnagar
  2. East Khasi Hills 2,748 5,37,906 Shillong
  3. Jaintia Hills 3,819 2,20,473 Jowai
  4. West Garo Hills 3,714 4,03,027 Tura
  5. West Khasi Hills 5,247 2,20,157 Nongstoin
  6. Ri-Bhoi 2,448 1,27,312 Nongpoh
  7. South Garo Hills 1,850 77,073 Baghmara

MizoramTop ⇮

Area : 21,081 sq km

Population : 6,89,756

Capital : Aizawl Principal

Languages : Mizo and English


History And Geography :

Mizoram is a mountainous region which became the 23rd state of the Indian Union in February 1987. It was one of the districts of Assam till 1972 when it became a Union Territory. After being annexed by the British in 1891, for the first few years, Lushai Hills in the north remained under Assam while the southern half remained under Bengal. Both these parts were amalgamated in 1898 into one district called Lushai Hills District under the Chief Commissioner of Assam. With the implementation of the North-Eastern Reorganisation Act in 1972, Mizoram became a Union Territory and as a sequel to the signing of the historic memorandum of settlement between the Government of India and the Mizo National Front in 1986, it was granted statehood on 20 February 1987. Sandwitched between Myanmar in the east and the south and Bangladesh in the west, Mizoram occupies an area of great strategic importance in the northeastern corner of India. Hills in Mizoram run from north to south with a tendency to be higher in the east and tapering in the north and south. The average height of hills is about 900 metre, the highest peak being Blue Mountain (Phawngpui), rising to 2,210 metres. Mizoram has great natural beauty and an endless variety of landscape. It is rich in fauna and flora.

The origin of the word .Mizo. is not known. The Mizos came under the influence of the British Missioneries in the 19th century and now most of the Mizos are Christians. One of the beneficial results of missionary activities was the spread of education. Mizo language has no script of its own. The missionaries introduced the Roman script for Mizo language and formal education.

Agriculture :
About 60 per cent of the people of Mizoram are engaged in agricultural pursuits. The main pattern of agriculture followed is jhum or shifting cultivation. Out of the estimated potential available area of 4.4 lakh hectares for horticulture, the area put under plantation is around 25,000 hectares only. The main horticulture crops are oranges, lemon, kagzi lime, passion fruits, hatkora, jamir, pineapple and papaya. Other crops are sugarcane, tapioca and cotton. With the processing unit coming up such as the Ginger Dehydration plant at Sairang and fruit juice concentration plants, people havbe started extensive cultivation of ginger and fruit crops. The Agriculture Department has introduced a new system of contour farming with contour trenches and hedging with the intention of switching over to permanent cultivation on the hill slopes. The Department had completed 55 minor irrigation projects covering an area of 2,245 hectares.

Irrigation :
The ultimate surface irrigation potential is estimated at 70,000 hectares of which 45,000 hectares is under flow and 25,000 hectares for river lift irrigation. The irrigated area has now gone up to 7,260 hectares by constructing and completing 30 pucca minor irrigation projects for raising double and triple crops in a year.

Industry :
The entire Mizoram is a Notified Backward Area and is categorised under .No Industry District.. However, concerted efforts were made in the last decade to accelerate the growth of industries in Mizoram. For the development of industries in the State, the Mizoram government framed ithe industrial policy of Mizoram in 1989. In the policy resolution priority industries have been identified. These are: agro and forest-based industries, followed by handloom and handicrafts, electronis, consumer industries. Sericulture is operating at Aizawl with two full-fledged wings, viz., handloom and handicrafts wing and geology and mining wing.

The completed projects of Ginger Oil and Oleoresin Plant and Ginger Dehydration Plant at Sairang and Fruit Preservation Factory at Vairengte and the projects under implementation namely Mizo Processing Unit (renamed Mizo Milling Plant) at Khawzawl and Fruit Juice Concentrate Plant at Chhingchhip were transferred to the incorporated Mizoram Food and Allied Industries Corporation (MIFCO) for commercial operation. Maize Milling Plant also has been completed and commissioned by MIFCO.

Development of tea industry/gardens and raising of Tooklai approved varieties of ten seedlings has been taken up by the government around Biate areas.

Power :
The Serchhip-Marpara 132 kv transmission line has been completed up to Thenhlum. The Lunglei 132 kv sub-station, Saitual and Khawzawl (66 kv substations) have also been completed. The Central government has given clearance for Tuirual Hydro project capable of giving 60 MW. The Government has commissioned a 5 MW Diesel generation set at Zuangtui and another set of 15 MW at Champhai. The State is generating 14.07 million units of power.

Transport :
Total road length in the State is 4,787 km. National Highway No. 54 links Tuipang the southern most district of Mizoram to Silchar town in Assam on the border of Mizoram. Rail link in the State had been established at Bairabi. Aizawl, the capital town of the State is air-linked. Mizoram State transport besides running passenger services in 33 routes including two inter-state services to Silchar in Assam and Shillong, also provides goods carriages on hire and also functions as Railway Out Agency for Silchar railway station in Cachar district of Assam. The Public Works Department completed metalling and black topping of 87.52 km and 146.53 km respectively. A full-fledged Air- Field at Lunglei has started functioning from December 1998.

Festivals :
Mizos are basically agriculturists. All their activities centre round jhum cultivation and their festivals are linked with such agricultural operations. Kut is the Mizo word for festivals. Mizos have three major festivals called Chapchar Kut, Mim Kut and Pawl Kut.

Tourist Centres :
The hilly city Aizawl located at nearly 4,000 feet above sea-level, is a religious and cultural centre of Mizoram where indigenous handicrafts are also available. Champhai is a beautiful resort on the Myanmar border. Tamdil a natural lake with virgin forest is 60 km from Aizawl and 10 km from tourist resort of Saitual. Vantawng falls, five km from hill station Thenzawl, are the highest and most beautiful waterfalls in Mizoram. The Department of Tourism has opened Tourist Lodge at Aizawl, Lunglei, Champhai and wayside restaurant at Thingdawl, Hnahthial, recreational centre at Beraw Tlang and Alpine picnic hut at District Park near Zobawk.

Government :

Governor : A. Padmanaban

Chief Secretary : H.V. Lalringa

Chief Minister : Zoramthanga

Speaker : R. Lalawia High Court

Jurisdiction of : Falls under the jurisdiction

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S. No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. Aizawl 12,581 4,78,465 Aizawl
  2. Lunglei 4,536 1,11,415 Lunglei
  3. Chhimtuipui 3,957 99,886 Saiha
  4. Lawngtlai - - Lawngtlai
  5. Champhai - - Champhai
  6. Kolasib - - Kolasib
  7. Mamit - - Mamit
  8. Serchhip - - Serchhip

NagalandTop ⇮

Area : 16,579 sq km

Population : 12,09,546

Capital : Kohima Principal

Languages : Angami, Ao, Chang, Konyak, Lotha, Sangtam, Sema and Chakhesang.


History And Geography :

Like other inhabitants of the north eastern region, the Nagas too have their share of legend and folklore regarding their origin and evolution through the ages. Nagas are basically tribal people and every tribe had its own effective system of self-governance from time immemorial. In the 12th and 13th centuries, gradual contact with the Ahoms of present day Assam was established but this did not have any significant impact on the traditional Naga way of life. However, in the 19th century the British appeared on the scene and ultimately the area was brought under British administration. After Independence this territory was made a Centrally administered area in 1957, administered by the Governor of Assam. It was known as the Naga Hills Tuensang Area. This failed to quell popular aspirations and unrest began. Hence in 1961, this was renamed as Nagaland and given the status of State of the Indian Union which was formally inaugurated on 1 Decemebr 1963. Situated in the extreme north-east of the country, Nagaland is bounded by Arunachal Pradesh in the north, Assam in west, Manipur in south and Myanmar in the east.

Agriculture :
Agriculture is the main occupation of 84.45 per cent of population in the State. Rice is the important foodgrain. Area under jhum cultivation is about 1,60,700 hectare and under terraced cultivation there was 63,000 hectare during 1997- 98.

Irrigation and Power :
Minor irrigation works are mostly meant to divert small hill streamlets to irrigate valleys used for rice cultivation. Under minor irrigation, surface minor irrigation covered 4,900 hectare and ground water covered 21 hectare during 1998-99. Number of electrified villages stands at 1,200. Nagaland has achieved cent per cent electrification of rural areas. A 24 megawatt hydro-electric project is under erection at Likimro.

Industry :
The process of industrialisation in the State is in infancy but the need to have more industries has been well recognised. The Nagaland Sugar Mill at Dimapur has an installed capacity of 1,000 tonnes per day. There is a pulp and paper mill at Tuli and a plywood factory at Tizit. Handloom and handicrafts are important cottage industries which are mainly being managed by cooperative societies. An industrial growth centre near Dimapur is under construction. The Nagaland Industrial Development Corporation is the premier promotional organisation in providing guidance and capital assistance to entrepreneurs. The mini cement plant at Wazeho has commenced production.

Road :
Road network consists of national, state and district roads with total length of 9,351 km. The Nagaland StateTransport operates on 60 routes daily with a total route of 20,696 km.

Railways/Aviation :
Dimapur is the only place where rail and air services are available. There is a bi-weekly Indian Airlines Boeing service connecting Dimapur with Guwahati and Calcutta.

Festivals :
Some of the important festivals are Sekrenyi, Moatsu, Tuluni and Tokku Emong. All tribes celebrate their distinct seasonal festivals with a pageantry of colour and a feast of music.

Government :

Governor : O.P. Sharma

Chief Secretary : A.M. Gokhale

Chief Minister : S.C. Jamir

Speaker : Zhovehu Lohe High Court Guwahati High Court. There is a bench at Kohima.

Jurisdiction of : Falls under Jurisdiction of

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S. No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. Kohima 4,041 3,87,581 Kohima
  2. Mokokchung 1,615 1,58,374 Mokokchung
  3. Mon 1,786 1,49,699 Mon
  4. Phek 2,026 1,02,156 Phek
  5. Tuensang 4,228 2,32,906 Tuensang
  6. Wokha 1,628 82,612 Wokha
  7. Zunheboto 1,255 97,218 Zunheboto
  8. Dimapur - - Dimapur

OrissaTop ⇮

Area : 1,55,707 sq km

Population : 3,16,59,736

Capital : Bhubaneswar Principal

Languages : Oriya.


History And Geography :

Orissa, the land of Oriyas, was known as Kalinga in ancient days. In the third century BC (261 BC) Ashoka the Mauryan emperor, sent a powerful force to conquer Kalinga which offered stubborn resistance. Kalinga was subdued but the carnage which followed, struck Ashoka with remorse. After the death of Ashoka, Kalinga regained its independence. In the second century BC, it became a powerful country under Kharavela. With the death of Kharavela, Orissa passed into obscurity. In the fourth century AD, Samudragupta invaded Orissa which lay astride his path and overcame resistance offered by five of its kings. In 610 AD, Orissa came under the sway of King Sasanka. After Sasanka.s death, Harsha conquered Orissa.

Orissa had its own rulers (Ganga dynasty) in the seventh century AD. In 795 AD, Mahasivagupta Yajati II came to the throne and with him began the most brilliant epoch in the history of Orissa. He united Kalinga, Kangoda, Utkal and Koshala in the imperial tradition of Kharavela. Under kings of Ganga dynasty, Orissa continued to flourish. Narasingha Dev of this dynasty is reputed to have built the unique Sun Temple of Konark. From mid-16th Century, Orissa was ruled successively by five Muslim kings till 1592, when Akbar annexed it into the Mughal empire. With the decline of the Mughal empire, Marathas occupied Orissa. They continued to hold it till the British took over in 1803.

Orissa was made into a separate province on 1 April 1936. After Independence, princely states in and around Orissa surrendered their sovereignty to the Government of India. By the States Merger (Governor.s provinces) Order, 1949 the princely states of Orissa were completely merged with the state of Orissa in January 1949. Although the state of Orissa had many ancient names like Kalinga, Utkal and Udra, it is widely known as the land of Lord Jagannath. Lord Jagannath is intimately connected with the social, cultural and religious life of Orissa. Jainism, Islam and Christianity had considerable impact on the people of Orissa in different periods.

Orissa is situated in the north-eastern part of the Indian peninsula extending from 17.49' N to 22.34' N latitude and from 81.29.E to 87.29' longitude. It is bound by the Bay of Bengal on the east, West Bengal on the North-east, Bihar on the north, Madhya Pradesh on the West and Andhra Pradesh on the south. The state may be broadly divided into four geographical regions: the northern plateau, central river basin, eastern hills and coastal plains.

Agriculture :
Agriculture is the dominant sector in the State.s economy. Sixty-four per cent of the working population is engaged either directly or indirectly in this sector. Rice is the main crop and its production during the year 1997-98 was 62.1 lakh metric tonnes. Sugarcane is the main cash crop. Production of oilseeds during 1997-98 was two lakh metric tonnes.

Irrigation and Power:
The irrigation potential has been created through major, medium, minor lift irrigation and water harvesting projects up to 24.04 lakh hectares by 1997-98. The Government has adopted some strategies for modernisation of present irrgation system.

The total installed capacity of power in state sector during 1997-98 was 1691.92 MW against which power was available to the extent of 635.74 MW. In addition to this 467.19 MW of power was received from Central sector projects towards state share. Out of 46,989 villages in the state 33,625 villages have been electrified by 1997-98.

Industry :
The Industrial Promotion and Investment Corporation Limited (IPICOL), Industrial Development Corporation Limited (IDCOL) and Orissa State Electronics Development Corporation (OSEDC) are three nodal agencies promoting large and medium industries in the state. By the end of 1997-98 Orissa had 313 large and medium industries. The State is providing institutional and financial support with various incentives and concessions for promotion of small scale, villages and cottage industries. There are 55,895 small scale industries in the State during 1997-98.

Road :
The length of different categories of roads in the state is as follows: 1,682 km national highways, 67 km express highway, 4,564 km state highways, 9,329 km of district roads and 29,222 km village roads.

Railways :
The total railways route length in the state by the end of 1997-98 was 2,192 km consisting of 2,048 broad-gauge and 144 km narrow-gauge lines.

Aviation :
The expansion and modernisation of Bhubaneswar airport is in progress. Direct link is available from Bhubaneswar to places like Delhi, Calcutta, Chennai, Nagpur and Hyderabad. There are 17 air strips and helipads at different places of the State.

Ports :
Paradeep is the only major port of the state. The improvement of Gopalpur to an all weather port is in progress. The State government has decided to build a Mega Port at Dhamara by private investment. The State government is providing inland water transport services through motorised launches in different inaccessable areas.

Tourist Centres :
Bhubaneswar is famous for the Lingaraj Temple while Puri is famous for the temple of Lord Jagannath and its beautiful sea beach. Other places of tourist interest are Konark, Nandankanan, Chilika Lake, Dhauli Buddhist Temple, Udaygiri-Khandagiri ancient caves, Ratnagiri Lalitgiri and Udaygiri Buddhist images and ancient caves, Saptasajya scenic view of hill-beds, Similipal National Park and Tiger Project, Hirakud Dam, Duduma Water Falls, Ushakothi Wildlife Sanctuary, Gopalpur Sea beach, Hari Shankar, Nrusinghanath, Taratarini, Taptapani, Bhitor Kanika, Bhimakunda, Kapilash, etc.

Orissa Cyclone :
A super cyclone of catastrophic intensity hit coastal Orissa on 29 October 1999 affecting about 11 million people in 11 out of 24 districts. According to the initial reports nearly 8,000 people have died (as on 11 November), more than 15,000 cattle have perished and 80 per cent of the coconut trees have been uprooted. Winter and autumn crops have been completely destroyed. Over three lakh dwelling units have been demolished. The estimated loss of property is over Rs 10,000 crore.

The Met office spotted the genesis of the storm on 25 October and tracked it over radar and satellite as it intensified into one of the worst cyclones ever to hit India. As the cyclone moved towards Orissa, on 27 October morning, district administrations were alerted and warnings sent over police wireless and AIR. Evacuation started on 28 October. The cyclone, when it hit at 11 am on 29 October was 300 km across and the wind speed varied between 150 to 300 km/h. As the storm rocked the State, Paradip with other coastal towns like Kendrapara, Rajnagar, Mahakalpada took the worst pounding. Initial reports indicated that sea waves up to 7 m high had rushed in and at places travelled up to 15 km inland. All systems like telephones, electricity, water supply and transportation were disrupted. The Central government has begun a massive relief operation moving about 4,000 tonnes of food and medicines every day by air, road and ship. The Centre has also released Rs 500 crore as relief for the storm hit. Various State governments are also rushing aid to Orissa.

Government :

Governor : M.M. Rajendran

Chief Secretary : S.B. Mishra

Chief Minister : Giridhar Gamang

Chief Justice : Arajit Pasayat (Acting)

Speaker : Chintamani Dyan

Jurisdiction of : Orissa Samantara High Court

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S. No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. Angul 6,347 9,61,037 Angul
  2. Balasore 3,706 16,96,583 Balasore
  3. Bolangir 6,552 12,30,938 Bolangir
  4. Boudh 4,289 3,17,622 Boudh
  5. Bhadrak 2,788 11,05,834 Bhadrak
  6. Bargarh 5,832 12,07,172 Bargarh
  7. Cuttack 3,915 19,72,739 Cuttack
  8. Deogarh 2,781 2,34,238 Deogarh
  9. Ganjam 8,033 27,04,056 Chatrapur
  10. Dhenkanal 4,597 9,47,870 Dhenkanal
  11. Gajapati 3,056 4,54,708 Parlakhemundi
  12. Jagatsinghpur 1,759 10,14,242 Jagatsinghpur
  13. Jajpur 2,885 13,86,177 Panikoili
  14. Jharsuguda 2,202 4,46,726 Jharsuguda
  15. Keonjhar 8,336 13,37,026 Keonjhar
  16. Kalahandi 8,197 11,30,903 Kalahandi
  17. Koraput 8,534 10,29,986 Koraput
  18. Kendrapara 2,546 11,49,501 Kendrapara
  19. Khurda 2,888 15,02,014 Khurda
  20. Mayurbhanja 10,410 18,84,580 Bariparav
  21. Malkangiri 6,115 4,21,917 Malkangiri
  22. Nawarangpur 5,135 8,46,659 Nawarangpur
  23. Nayagarh 3,954 7,82,647 Nayagarh
  24. Nawapara 3,408 4,69,482 Nawapara
  25. Puri 3,055 13,05,365 Puri
  26. Kandhamal 6,004 5,46,281 Phulbani
  27. Rayagada 7,585 7,13,984 Rayagada
  28. Sambalpur 6,702 8,09,017 Sambalpur
  29. Sundargarh 9,942 15,73,617 Sundargarh
  30. Sonepur 2,284 4,76,815 Sonepur

PunjabTop ⇮

Area : 50,362 sq km

Population : 2,02,81,969

Capital : Chandigarh Principal

Languages : Punjabi


History And Geography :

Ancient Punjab formed part of the vast Indo-Iranian region. In later years it saw the rise and fall of the Mauryans, Bactrians, Greeks, Sakas, Kushans and Guptas. Medieval Punjab saw a supremacy of the Muslims. Ghaznavi was followed by the Ghoris, the slaves, the Khiljis, the Tughlaks, the Lodhis and the Mughals. Fifteenth and sixteenth centuries mark a period of watershed in the history of Punjab. Through teachings of Guru Nanak, Bhakti movement received a great impetus. Prima facie, Sikhism was a socio-religious movement which was more interested in fighting evils in religion and society. It was Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Guru who transformed the Sikhs into the Khalsa. They rose to challenge tyranny and after centuries of servitude established a human Punjabi Raj based on secularism and patriotism. Ranjit Singh has in the words of a Persian writer changed Punjab from Madam-Kada to Bagh-i-bahisht, from the abode of sorrow to the garden of paradise. But soon after his death, the entire edifice collapsed on account of internal intrigues and British machinations. After two abortive Anglo-Singh wars, Punjab was finally annexed to the British Empire in 1849. The fight against British rule had begun long before Mahatma Gandhi.s arrival on the scene. The revolt found expression through the movement of a revivalist or reformist character. First, it was the Namdhari sect which believed in self-discipline and self-rule. Later, it was Lala Lajpat Rai who played a leading role in the Freedom Movement. Punjab was in the vanguard of India.s freedom struggle on all fronts in India and abroad. Punjab.s tale of woe did not culminate with Independence and it had to face the holocaust of Partition along with displaced persons with harrowing memories. Besides their rehabilitation, there was the task of reorganisation of the State.

Eight princely states of East Punjab were grouped together to form one single state called PEPSU-Patiala and the East Punjab States Union with Patiala as its capital. PEPSU state was merged with Punjab 1956. Situated in north-western corner of the country, Punjab is bound on the west by Pakistan, on north by Jammu and Kashmir, on north-east Himachal Pradesh and on south by Haryana and Rajasthan.

Agriculture :
Agriculture is the mainstay of Punjab.s economy. Nearly 84 per cent of the total geographical area of the State is under cultivation. Punjab alone contributed 80 per cent of wheat and 43 per cent of rice to the Central pool in 1998-99 marketing year, despite the fact that it comprises only 1.53 per cent of the total area of the country. Besides wheat and rice, other main crops are maize, gram and pulses. Production of foodgrains during 1998-99 is likely to be 216.83 lakh tonnes. Mushrooms, honey, chillies, potato chips and tomato paste are exported from Punjab.

Irrigation and Power:
The construction of Bhakra Nangal Complex, including Bhakra Dam, Bhakra Main Line, Nangal Hydel Channel, Ganguwal and Kotla Power House, Harike Barrage, Sirhind Feeder, remodelling of Madhopur Headworks into Barrage, etc., have been some of the major hydro-electric projects which have played a significant role in considerably enhancing the irrigation and power potential of the State. Madhopur-Beas Link was constructed to transfer surplus water of Ravi to Beas. A similar Beas-Sutlej Link Project envisages the utilisation of the Beas water for the production of electricity at Salarpur and then transferring its water to Gobind Sagar lake. The Mukerian Hydel Electric Project and Beas- Sutlej Link Projects are two important irrigation and power projects.

On the Irrigation front, about 60 per cent of the total irrigated land is served by tubewells, the remaining 40 per cent is irrigated through canals, etc. Presently, the Punjab State Electricity Board has 2,677 MW of installed capacity from its own thermal power plants in India. Another thermal plant by the name of Guru Hargobind Thermal Power Plant of 2x210 MW capacity, was commissioned during 1998-99 at Lehra Mohabbat near Bathinda. The rice straw thermal power plant at Jalkheri is the first of its kind in India with a generating capacity of 10 MW. There is 100 per cent electrification in Punjab.

Sri Anandpur Sahib has been developed by the PEDA as the First Solar city of India on the occasion of Tri-centenary celebrations of .the Birth of Khalsa.. Three photovoltaic power plants each of 5 KW capacity have been set up at the three historic Gurudwaras of this sacred town. The Government of India has allocated a grant of Rs 48 crore for setting up of .S. Swaran Singh National Institute of Renewable Energy. near Jalandhar. During 1997-98 and 1998-99, 242 MW equivalent power generation through non-conventional energy sources and 5.5 MW installed capacity through micro hydel plants on canal falls has been developed.

Industry :
There are 1.97 lakh small scale units in the state. These units produce bicycle parts, sewing machines, hand tools, machine tools, auto parts, electronic items, sports goods, surgical and leather goods, hosiery, knitwear, nuts and bolts, textiles, sugar, vegetable oil, etc., giving employment to 8.57 lakh persons. Besides there are 642 large and medium scale units employing more than 2.30 lakh persons. Punjab is emerging as a major growth centre for electronics software industry. Attracted by the improved industrial climate in the State, a number of NRIs and several foreign companies have also come forward to set up industries or to collaborate with the existing units. An oil refinery project is being set up in district Bhatinda.

Road :
The road length in Punjab is 42,757 km out of which provincial roads are 41,559 km while national highways are 1,198 km. All villages of the state have been linked with metalled road.

Railways :
The length of the rail routes passing through the State is around 3,725.16 km. Rail communication with Pakistan also emanates from Punjab (Amritsar).

Aviation :
There are three Civil Aviation Clubs at Bathinda, Ludhiana and Patiala; one flying club at Jalandhar, one domestic airport at Chandigarh; International Airport at Rajasansi (Amritsar) and two aerodromes at Patiala and Sahnewal (Ludhiana).

Festivals :
Besides festivals of Dussehra, Diwali, Holi, other important festivals/fairs/melas are Baisakhi, Hola Mohalla, Basant, Maghi Mela, etc.

Tourist Centres :
The Punjab Tourism Development Corporation owns a chain of 32 tourist complexes and holiday homes. The State has a large number of places of tourist interest some of which include Golden Temple, Durgiana Mandir and Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, Takhat Keshgarh Sahib, Anandpur Sahib, Bhakra Dam, Mughal Monument Complex Aam and Khas Bagh and Roze Sharif of Sheikh Ahmed at Sirhind with graves of Afghan rulers, Sodal temple at Jalandhar and Ram Tirath commemorative Maharishi Balmiki.s heritage which is being recognised as a venue for a national festival.

Government :

Governor : Lt. Gen. (Retd.)

Chief Secretary : Sardar R.S. Mann Singh Badal

Chief Minister : Sardar Parkash

Chief Justice : Justice A.B. Saharya J.F.R. Jacob

Jurisdiction of : Punjab and Haryana High High Court Court, Chandigarh

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S. No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. Amritsar 5,075 25,03,165 Amritsar
  2. Bathinda 3,377 9,79,566 Bathinda
  3. Faridkot 1,472 4,51,406 Faridkot
  4. Fatehgarh Sahib 1,180 4,62,693 Fatehgarh Sahib
  5. Firozepur 5,865 16,06,092 Firozepur
  6. Gurdaspur 3,570 17,57,808 Gurdaspur
  7. Hoshiarpur 3,310 12,98,185 Hoshiarpur
  8. Jalandhar 2,658 16,47,492 Jalandhar
  9. Kapurthala 1,646 6,48,516 Kapurthala
  10. Ludhiana 3,744 24,26,883 Ludhiana
  11. Mansa 2,174 5,80,397 Mansa
  12. Moga 1,672 6,26,391 Moga
  13. Muktsar 2,596 6,53,079 Muktsar
  14. Nawan Shehar 1,258 5,31,253 Nawan Shehar
  15. Patiala 3,627 15,21,330 Patiala
  16. Roop Nagar 2,117 9,02,264 Roop Nagar
  17. Sangrur 5,021 16,85,449 Sangrur

RajasthanTop ⇮

Area : 3,42,239 sq km

Population : 4,40,05,990

Capital : Jaipur Principal

Languages : Hindi and Rajasthani


History And Geography :

Rajasthan, the second largest State in India area-wise prior to Independence was known as Rajputana or the home of Rajputs - a martial community who ruled over this area for centuries. The history of Rajasthan dates back to the pre-historic times. Around 3000 and 1000 BC, it had a culture akin to that of the Indus Valley civilisation. It were the Chauhans who dominated Rajput affairs from seventh century and by 12th century they had become an imperial power. After the Chauhans, it were the Guhilots of Mewar who controlled the destiny of the warring tribes. Besides Mewar, the other historically prominent states were Marwar, Jaipur, Bundi, Kota, Bharatpur and Alwar. Other states were only offshoots of these. All these states accepted the British Treaty of Subordinate Alliance in 1818 protecting the interest of the princes. This naturally left the people discontented. After the revolt of 1857, the people united themselves under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi to contribute to the freedom movement.

With the introduction of provincial autonomy in 1935 in British India, agitation for civil liberties and politcal rights became stronger in Rajasthan. The process of uniting scattered states commenced from 1948 to 1956 when the States Reorganisation Act was promulgated. First came Matsya Union (1948) consisting of a fraction of states. Slowly and gradually other states merged with this Union. By 1949, major states like Bikaner, Jaipur, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer joined this Union making it United State of Greater Rajasthan. Ultimately in 1958, the present State of Rajasthan formally came into being, with Ajmer state, the Abu Road Taluka and Sunel Tappa joining it.

The entire western flank of the state borders with Pakistan, while Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh bind Rajasthan in north, north-east and south-east and Gujarat in south-west.

Agriculture :
Total cultivable area in the State is 257 lakh hectares (1998-99). The estimated foodgrain production is 172.96 lakh tonnes. Principal crops cultivated in the State are rice, barley, jowar, millet, maize, gram, wheat, oilseeds, pulses, cotton and tobacco. Cultivation of vegetable and citrus fruits such as orange and malta has also picked up over the last few years. Other crops are red chillies, mustard, cuminseeds, methi and hing.

Irrigation and Power:
Irrigation potential has been raised by 80,000 hectares during 1998-99 and the total irrigation potential of the State is 47.20 lakh hectares. The state purchased 10,940.026 million units of power in addition to its own generation of 10,038.661 million units of power during 1998-99.

Industry and Minerals :
Endowed with a rich culture, Rajasthan is also rich in minerals and is fast emerging on the industrial scenario of the country. Some of the important Central undertakings are Zinc Smelter Plant at Devari (Udaipur), Copper Plant at Khetri Nagar (Jhunjhunu) and Precision Instrument Factory at Kota. Smallscale industrial units numbering 1.99 lakh with a capital investment of Rs 25.83 crore provided employment potential to about 7.78 lakh persons in the State in 1998-99. Major industries are textiles and woollens, sugar, cement, glass, sodium plants, oxygen, vegetable dyes, pesticides, zinc, fertilizers, railway wagons, ball bearings, water and electricity metres, sulphuric acid, television sets, synthetic yarn and insulating bricks. Besides, precious and semi-precious stones, caustic soda, calcium carbide, nylon and tyres, etc., are other important industrial units.

Rajasthan has rich deposits of zinc concentrates, emerald, garnet, gypsum, silver ore, asbestos, felspar and mica. The State also abounds in salt, rock phosphate, marble and red stone deposits. The first Export Promotion Industrial Park of the country has been established and made operational at Sitapura (Jaipur)

Road :
Total length of roads was 77,347 km as on March 1999.

Railways :
Jodhpur, Jaipur, Bikaner, Kota, Sawai Madhopur and Bharatpur are main rail junctions of the State.

Aviation :
Regular air services connect Jaipur, Jodhpur and Udaipur with Delhi and Mumbai.

Festivals :
Rajasthan is land of festivals and fairs. Besides the national festivals of Holi, Deepawali, Vijayadashmi, Muharram, Christmas, etc., birth anniversaries of gods and goddesses, saintly figures, folk heroes and heroines are celebrated. Important fairs are Teej, Gangaur (Jaipur), annual Urs of Ajmer Sherif and Galiakot, tribal Kumbh of Beneshwar (Dungarpur), Mahaveer Fair at Shri Mahavirji in Sawai Madhopur, Ramdeora (Jaisalmer), Janbheshwarji Fair (Mukam-Bikaner), Kartik Poornima and Cattle Fair (Pushkar-Ajmer) and Shyamji Fair (Sikar), etc.

Tourist Centres :
Jaipur, Jodhpur, Udaipur, Bikaner, Mount Abu, Sariska Tiger Sanctuary in Alwar, Keoladeo National Park at Bharatpur, Ajmer, Jaisalmer, Pali and Chittorgarh are important places of tourist interest in the State.

Government :

Governor : Justice Anshuman Singh

Chief Secretary : Arun Kumar

Chief Minister : Ashok Gehlot

Speaker : Paras Ram Maderna High Court

Jurisdiction of : Rajasthan

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S. No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. Ajmer 8,481 17,29,207 Ajmer
  2. Alwar 8,380 22,96,580 Alwar
  3. Banswara 5,037 11,55,600 Banswara
  4. Barmer 28,387 14,35,222 Barmer
  5. Bharatpur 5,066 16,51,584 Bharatpur
  6. Bhilwara 10,455 15,93,128 Bhilwara
  7. Bikaner 27,244 12,11,140 Bikaner
  8. Bundi 5,550 7,70,248 Bundi
  9. Chittorgarh 10,856 14,84,190 Chittorgarh
  10. Churu 16,830 15,43,211 Churu
  11. Dholpur 3,084 7,49,479 Dholpur
  12. Dungarpur 3,770 8,74,549 Dungarpur
  13. Ganganagar 20,634 26,22,777 Ganganagar
  14. Jaipur 14,068 47,22,551 Jaipur
  15. Jaisalmer 38,401 3,44,517 Jaisalmer
  16. Jalore 10,640 11,42,563 Jalore
  17. Jhalawar 6,219 9,56,971 Jhalawar
  18. Jhunjhunu 5,928 15,82,421 Jhunjhunu
  19. Jodhpur 22,850 21,53,483 Jodhpur
  20. Kota 12,436 20,30,831 Kota
  21. Nagaur 17,718 21,44,810 Nagaur
  22. Pali 12,387 14,86,432 Pali
  23. Sawai Madhopur 10,527 19,63,246 Sawai Madhopur
  24. Sikar 7,732 18,42,914 Sikar
  25. Sirohi 5,136 6,54,029 Sirohi
  26. Tonk 7,194 9,75,006 Tonk
  27. Udaipur 17,279 28,89,301 Udaipur
  28. Dausa 2,950 9,92,253 Dausa
  29. Baran 6,955 6,36,526 Baran
  30. Rajsamand 4,684 8,21,923 Rajsamand
  31. Hanumangarh1 - 12,20,000 Hanumangarh
  32. Karoli2 - 9,27,719 Karoli

1 A new district, figures in Ganganagar
2 A new district

SikkimTop ⇮

Area : 7,096 sq km

Population : 4,06,457

Capital : Gangtok Principal

Languages : Lepcha, Bhutia, Nepali and Limbu


History And Geography :

The early history of Sikkim starts in the 13th century with the signing of a blood-brotherhood treaty between the Lepcha Chief Thekong Tek and Tibetan prince Khye-Bumsa at Kabi Lungtsok in North Sikkim. This follows the historical visit of three revered saints to Yuksam in 1641 in west Sikkim where they met Phutsog Namgyal, a sixth generation descendant of Khye Bumsa, and formally consecrated him as the first Chogyal of Sikkim at Yuksam in 1642, thus heralding the beginning of the Namgyal dynasty in Sikkim. With the march of history, events in Sikkim saw the state pass democracy and become an integral part of the Indian Union in 1975.

Bounded by Bhutan in the east, Tibet in the north, Nepal in the west and the State of West Bengal in the south, Sikkim lies in the heart of the towering Eastern Himalayas. Personally consecrated by Guru Padmasambhava during his sojourn to Tibet, Sikkim is a blessed land where people from all communities live in harmony. The world.s third highest mountain, Khang-hen-dzo-nga, regarded as the guardian diety of Sikkim, dominates the tiny Himalayan State with its awe-inspiring beauty and majesty. Over 4,000 species of different plants and shrubs, around 700 species of rare orchids and rhododendrons and flowers of myriad hues and shapes have transformed Sikkim into a nature lover.s paradise. Most of the 7,096 sq km of Sikkim consists of mountainous terrain, interpersed with ravines and green valleys. The two main rivers are Teesta and Rangit.

Agriculture :
The state.s economy is basically agrarian. Maize, rice, wheat, potato, large cardamom, ginger and orange are the principal crops. Sikkim has the largest area and highest production of cardamom in India. Ginger, potato, orange and off-season vegetables are other cash crops. Since the area available for cultivation constitutes only 11 to 12 per cent of total land utilisation in the State, the scope of increasing production through area expansion is limited. The main thrust in agriculture development, therefore, has been to maximise productivity and net income per unit area. Emphasis, at present, is being made on development of commercial and horticulture crops and floriculture. Intensive agriculture is being followed with adequate support of inputs.

Irrigation and Power:
During the Seventh Plan period (1985 to 1990) many new irrigation schemes for providing assured water both for kharif and rabi cropping were taken up and to avoid damages to open channels due to landslide, concrete hume pipes and IIDPE pipes in sinking areas, were used extensively within this period. An additional irrigation potential of 6,359 hectares was created and a corresponding 5,530 hectares of potential was utilised. The state has initiated steps to prepare a master plan for irrigation in the entire state in collaboration with the Agriculture Finance Corporation. A 200 KW micro hydel scheme at Lachung in North Sikkim has been commissioned. Two more similar schemes are to be taken up during the Eighth Plan period in a phased manner. The total power potential of the state is about 8,000 MW.

Industry :
Sikkim has been declared industrially backward and the Department of Industries has launched a number of promotional schemes. In order to plan strategy to develop industrial climate in the state, a new industrial policy has been formulated from 10 April 1996. The Department of Industries lays emphasis not only on the promotion and development of various small industries, but is also generating employment opportunities by transforming the unemployed into local successful entrepreneurs. The Directorate of Handloom and Handicrafts at Gangtok provides training to youth in traditional arts and crafts.

Temi Tea Estate located in Temi, South Sikkim is one of the best tea producing states in the country and has earned a reputation in domestic as well as foreign markets. During the year 1997-98 Temi Tea estate produced 1,16,000 kg tea. There are three public sector undertakings in Sikkim. Sikkim Time Corporation (SITCO) is owned by the state government. In collaboration with IIMT it assembles watches, manufactures digital watches and M.I.C. chips. Sikkim Jewels Limited is one of the sophisticated and precision oriented industries for the manufacture of jewel bearings for electric meters, water meters and other measuring instruments like watches and clocks. Ten ancillary units have been set up to manufacture 600 lakh watch jewels per annum. Sikkim Industrial Corporation was established in March 1977 with twin functions of State Financial Corporation and Small Industries Development Corporation. It provides long-term loans for cottage, tiny, small and medium-scale industrial units, hotel, hospitals/nursing homes and taxi.

Road :
Gangtok is connected by road with Darjeeling, Kalimpong, Siliguri and also with all the district headquarters within Sikkim. Road length in the state is 2,383 km.

Railways :
The two closest railway stations are Siliguri (114 km) and New Jalpaiguri (125 km) connecting Calcutta, Delhi, Guwahati, Lucknow and other important cities in India.

Aviation :
There is no airport in Sikkim. Bagdogra airport in Westengal which caters to the state is 124 km and approximately five hours drive from Gangtok. Bagdogra has regular Indian Airlines and Jet Airways services from Calcutta and Delhi and also the North-East.

Festivals :
Sikkim.s population is comprised of the three principal ethnic communities of the Bhutias, the Lepchas and the Nepalese. Maghey Sankranti, Durga Puja, Laxmi Puja and Chaite Dasai are the main festivals celebrated by the Nepali community. Pang-Lhabsol, Losoong and Losar are celebrated by the Bhutia community. Namsoong and Tendong Hlo Rum Faat is celebrated by the Lepcha community.

Tourist Centres :
Some important tourist centres are Gangtok, Bakhim, Yumthang, Dubdi, Dzongri, Varsey, Tashiding, Rumtek monastery, Pemayantse monastery, Tsomgo and Phodong monastery.

Government :

Governor : Chaudhury Randhir Singh

Chief Secretary : Sonam Wangdi

Chief Minister : Pawan Chamling

Chief Justice : R.S. Dayal

Speaker : C.B. Subba

Jurisdiction of : Sikkim High Cour

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S. No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. East 954 1,78,452 Gangtok
  2. North 4,226 31,240 Mangan
  3. South 750 98,604 Namchi
  4. West 1,166 98,161 Gyalshing

Tamil NaduTop ⇮

Area : 1,30,058 sq km

Population : 5,58,58,946

Capital : Chennai Principal

Languages : Tamil


History And Geography :

Tamil Nadu has a hoary antiquity. Though early sangam classics throw historical references, only from the Pallavas we pass to recorded history. South India had remained under the hegemony of the Cholas, the Cheras and the Pandyas for centuries. The Pallavas held supremacy from about the second quarter of the fourth century AD. They were the originators of the famous Dravidian style of temple architecture. The last Pallava ruler was Aparajita in whose reign the later Cholas under Vijayalaya and Aditya asserted themselves by about 10th century. At the end of 11th century, Tamil Nadu was ruled by several dynasties like the Chalukyas, Cholas and Pandyas. In the two centuries that followed, the imperial Cholas gained paramountancy over South India.

Muslims gradually strengthened their position, which led to the establishment of the Bahamani sultanate by the middle of the 14th century. At the same time, the Vijayanagar kingdom quickly consolidated itself and extended its sway over the whole of South India and at the close of the century, Vijayanagar became the supreme power in South. However, it crumbled at the battle of Talikota in 1564 to the confederate forces of the Deccan Sultans. Even during the period of the tumultous confusion that followed the battle of Talikota, European commercial interest had appeared as rivals in the area of South India. The Portuguese, the Dutch, the French and the English came in quick succession and established trading centres known as .Factories.

East India Company which had established their factory at Masulipatnam, now in Andhra Pradesh, in 1611 gradually annexed territories by encouraging enmity among the native rulers, Tamil Nadu was one of the first of British settlements in India. The State is the successor to the old Madras Presidency which in 1901 covered the bulk of the southern Peninsula. The composite Madras State was later reorganised and the present Tamil Nadu was formed. Tamil Nadu is bounded on north by Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, on west by Kerala, on east by the Bay of Bengal and on south by the Indian Ocean.

Agriculture :
Agriculture is the major occupation in Tamil Nadu. Total cultivated area in this State is 6.56 million hectares. The principal food crops of this State include paddy, millets, jowar, bajra, ragi and maize and pulses. Commercial crops include sugarcane, cotton, sunflower, coconut, cashew, chillies, gingelly and groundnut. Plantation crops are Tea, Coffee, cardamom, cashew and rubber. Major Forest produces are timber, sandalwood, pulp wood and fuel wood. Minor products are honey and herbal items. Tamil Nadu occupies a premier position in the production and extensive application of bio-fertilizers. Efforts are on to improve farming technologies so as to increase yields in the low rainfall areas of the state.

Irrigation and Power:
Important irrigation schemes implemented are : Mettur, the Lower Bhavani, the Amaravathi, the Vaigai, the Parambikulam-Aliyar, the Krishnagiri, the Sathanur, the Kullambadi-Kattalai high level canal, the Gomukhi Nadhi, Chithar Pattinamkal and the Pennaiyar. Water Resources Consolidation project is implemented to modernise large and medium irrigation schemes to enhance efficiency of irrigation by improving the canal system and for the early completion of nine incomplete irrigation projects.

The total installed capacity for electricity in the state is 6916 MW. The gross generation of power is about 34068 MU. The first private sector Power project with a capacity of 196 MW located at Bhasin Bridge near Chennai has commenced production in 1999. The Tamil Nadu Electricity Board has identified 16 private promoters to establish a generating capacity of 10878 MW in the next 10 years.

The other major projects contemplated include a 2000 MW South Madras Thermal Power Project at Cheyyur as a joint project with the National Thermal Power Corporation. The 2 x 1000 MW nuclear power project at Koodankulam is being set up, with Russian collaboration.

Industry and Minerals :
Major industries in the State are cotton, heavy commercial vehicles, auto components, railway coaches, power pumps, leather tanning industries, cement, sugar, paper, automobiles and safety matches. Tamil Nadu has achieved the first rank in the country in respect of inflow of investment approved and under implementation (CMIE, April 1999). The important public sector undertakings in the State include Neyveli Lignite Corporation, Integral Coach Factory, High Pressure Boiling Plant, Hindustan Teleprinters, Hindustan Photo Films, Madras Refineries, Madras Fertilisers, Heavy Vehicles Factory, Salem Steel Plant and Pugalur Paper Factory.

Global auto majors Hyundai Motors and Mitsubishi have commenced production and Ford car project will commence production in October 1999. Information Technology (IT) has become a thrust area in the industrial scene of Tamil Nadu and the Government has announced the IT policy. TIDEL, a software technology park is being established in Tharamani, Chennai. Also, TANITEC, an institute of excellence for IT education has been established in Chennai. Major minerals of the state are lignite, limestone, magnasite, mica, quartz, salt, bauxite and gypsum. The state is an important exporter of tanned skin and leather goods, yarn, tea, coffee, spices, engineering goods, tobacco, handicrafts and black granite.

Road :
The length of roads network in Tamil Nadu is 1.76 lakh km of which surface road is 1.38 lakh km.

Railways :
The total length of railways is 3,991 km with 626 railway stations, the main junctions being Chennai, Madurai, Tiruchirapalli and Coimbatore.

Aviation :
Chennai being the international airport in the southern region, is the main centre of airline routes. Besides, there are airports at Tiruchirapalli, Madurai, Coimbatore and Salem.

Ports :
Major ports in the State are Chennai and Tuticorin. There are seven other minor ports including Cuddalore and Nagapattinam.

Festivals :
Pongal: Pongal is the harvest festival celebrated by the farmers in January to worship the sun, the earth and the cattle as thanks giving for a bounteous harvest. Pongal festival is followed by the Jallikattu-Bull fight, Tamil Nadu style in some parts of southern Tamil Nadu. Alanganallur in Tamil Nadu is internationally famous for Jallikattu-Bull fight.

Chithirai Festival Madurai: Madurai brings a spectacular re-enactment of the marriage of the Pandiyan princess Meenakshi to Lord Sundareswarar.

Adipperukku: Adipperukku is a festival celebrated on the 18th day of Tamil month, Adi, on the banks of rivers. It marks the commencement of new farming operations.

Dance Festivals - Mamallapuram: Set before an open-air .stage. created 13 centuries ago the incredible monolithic rock sculptures of the Pallavas, next to the sea in this ancient city of Mamallapuram, lovers of dance will be treated to a very unique and unforgettably aesthetic event: Bharatha Natyam, Kuchipudi, Kathakali and Odissi, presented by the very best exponents of the art besides folk dances.

Natyanjali Dance Festival: The temple city of Chidambaram pays special tribute to Lord Nataraja the .Cosmic dancer.

Mahamagam Festival: A holy festival that brings pilgrims to Kumbakonam once in 12 years - the temple city that gets its name from Kumbha - the divine pot.

Summer Festival: The summer festival is held every year in the .Queen of Hill Stations., the evergreen Ooty, the exquisite Kodaikkanal or the salubrious heights of Yercaud.

Kanthuri Festival: A truly secular festival - where devotees flock to the shrine of saint Quadirwali. One of the descendants of the Saint is chosen as a Peer or spiritual leader and is honoured with offerings. On the tenth day of the festival, the Saint.s tomb is annointed with sandalwood and later the holy sandal paste is distributed to everyone.

Velankanni Festival: Wondrous legends surround the church-the msot famous being that of the ship-wrecked Portuguese sailors, who in the 16th century, vowed to build a great shrine for the Virgin Mary, for saving their lives in a terrible storm. The Velankanni festival attracts thousands, clad in orange robes to the sacred spot where the ship landed. Equally famous are the Virgin Mary.s miraculous healing powers - earning for the church the name .Lourdes of the East..

Navarathri Festival: Literally, this means the festival of .nine nights. taking unique and different forms in different states of India - all to propitiate the goddess Sakthi, for power, wealth and knowledge.

Karthigai Deepam: Rows of glittering earthen lamps outside every home, and joyous burst of fire crackers mark Tamil Nadu.s Festival of lights. Music Festival: In December, Chennai celebrates her priceless heritage of carnatic music and dance to present a galaxy of star artistes, old and new.

Tourist Centres :
Chennai, Mamallapuram, Poompuhar, Kancheepuram, Kumbakonam, Dharasuram, Chidambaram, Tiruvannamalai, Srirangam, Madurai, Rameswaram, Tirunelveli, Kannyakumari, Thanjavur, Velankanni, Nagoor, Chithannavasal, Kazhugumalai (monument centres), Courtallam, Hogenakkal, Papanasam, Suruli (water-falls), Ooty (Udhagamandalam), Kodaikanal, Yercaud, Elagiri Kolli Hills (hill stations), Guindy (Chennai), Mudumalai, Anamalai, Mundanthurai, Kalakad (wildlife sanctuaries), Vedanthangal and Point Calimere (bird sanctuaries) and Vandalur Zoological park near Chennai are some of the places of tourist interest.

Government :

Governor : Justice M. Fathima Beevi

Chief Secretary : A.P. Muthuswami

Chief Minister : M. Karunanidhi

Chief Justice : A.C. Agarwal

Speaker : P.T.R. Palanivel Rajan

Jurisdiction of : Tamil Nadu and High Court Pondicherry

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S. No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. Chennai 174 38,41,396 Chennai
  2. Kancheepuram 4,433 24,42,179 Kancheepuram
  3. Thiruvallur 3,424 22,11,414 Thiruvallur
  4. Vellore 6,077 30,26,432 Vellore
  5. Tiruvannamalai 6,191 20,42,979 Tiruvannamalai
  6. Cuddalore 3,999 1,22,759 Cuddalore
  7. Villupuram 7,217 27,46,465 Villupuram
  8. Salem 5,220 26,62,164 Salem
  9. Namakkal 3,429 12,34,218 Namakkal
  10. Dharmapuri 9,622 24,28,596 Dharmapuri
  11. Pudukottai 4,651 13,27,148 Pudukottai
  12. Erode 8,209 23,20,263 Erode
  13. The Nilgiris 2,549 7,10,214 Uthagamandalam
  14. Coimbatore 7,469 35,08,374 Coimbatore
  15. Trichirappalli 5,114 21,96,473 Trichirappalli
  16. Karur 2,896 8,54,162 Karur
  17. Perambalur 3,691 10,87,413 Perambalur
  18. Thanjavur 3,397 20,53,760 Thanjavur
  19. Nagapattinam 2,716 13,77,601 Nagapattinam
  20. Thiruvarur 2,161 11,00,096 Thiruvarur
  21. Madurai 3,676 24,00,339 Madurai
  22. Theni 2,889 10,49,323 Theni
  23. Dindigul 6,058 17,60,601 Dindigul
  24. Ramanathapuram 4,232 11,44,040 Ramanathapuram
  25. Sivagangai 4,086 10,78,190 Sivagangai
  26. Virudhunagar 4,288 15,65,037 Virudhunagar
  27. Tirunelveli 6,810 25,01,832 Tirunelveli
  28. Toothukudi 4,621 14,55,920 Toothukudi
  29. Kannyakumari 1,685 16,00,349 Nagercoil

TripuraTop ⇮

Area : 10,491.69 sq km

Population : 27,57,205

Capital : Agartala Principal

Languages : Bengali and Kokborak


History And Geography :

Tripura has a long historic past, its unique tribal culture and a fascinating folk lore. The history of Tripura can be understood from .Rajmala. chronicles of king Tripura and writings of other Mohammedan historions. There are references of Tripura even in Mahabharata and Puranas. According to .Rajmala., the rulers were known by the surname .Fa. meaning .father.. There is a reference to rulers of Bengal helping Tripura kings in the 14th century. Kings of Tripura had to face frequent Mughal invasions with varying successes. They defeated the Mohammedan Sultans of Bengal in several battles. Nineteenth century marked the beginning of the modern era in Tripura when king Maharaja Birchandra Kishore Manikya Bahadur modelled his administrative set-up on the British India pattern and brought in various reforms. His successors ruled over Tripura till 15 October 1949 when it merged with the Indian Union. Initially, a part .C. state and with the re-organisation of states in 1956, it became a Centrally administered territory. In 1972, this territory attained the status of a full-fledged state.

Tripura is strategically situated between the river valleys of Myanmar and Bangladesh. Encircled almost on three sides by Bangladesh, it is linked with Assam and Mizoram in the north-east.

Irrigation and Power:
Total irrigated area in the State is 64,665 hectares. It is estimated that about 1.17 lakh additional hectares of land will be brought under irrigation scheme of which 13,000 hectares will be covered by the medium irrigation schemes, 66,000 hectares by the minor irrigation schemes and 38,000 hectares by utilising ground water potential. During the Seventh Plan and the two Annual Plans (1985-1992) several new projects, viz., Gas Thermal Project at Baramura of 16.5 MW capacity, Gas Thermal Project at Rukhia of 8 MW capacity and Micro Hydel Project at Maharani of 1 MW capacity were undertaken, and two new transmission lines of 66 KV were constructed. NEEPCO has made its Ramchandranagar thermal power plant of SIMW a reality which is generating 21 MW of power in the first phase.

Road :
Total length of road in Tripura is 12,547 km of which major district roads are 454 km and other district roads are 1,463 km.

Railways :
Total length of railway lines within the State is 44 km. It has been extended up to Kumarghat in North Tripura district. Project for extension of Railway line to Agartala has been taken up by NF Railway. Survey work has started for extension of Railway line from Agartala to Sabroom.

Aviation :
Agartala is the main airport and connected with Calcutta, Guwahati and Delhi. There are airports at Kailashahar and Kamalpur though they are not functioning at present.

Festivals :
Makar Sankranti festival at Tirthamukh and Unakoti, Holi festival, Ashokashtami festival at Unakoti, Brahmakunda festival at Mohanpur, Rash festival, Bengali New Years festival, Garia festival, Biju festival, Hozagiri festival, Boat Race and Mansa Mangal festival, Ker and Kharchi festival, Sarad festival, Diwali, Christmas at Jampui Hills, Budha Purnima festival, etc., are celebrated.

Tourist Centres :
Important tourist centres are : Ujjayanta Palace, Kunjaban Palace, Jagannath Temple, Laxmi Narayan Temple, Uma Maheswari Temple, Benuban Vihar, Maharaja Bir Bikram College, State Museum, Rabindra Kanan, (all at Agartala); 14-Goddess temple at Old Agartala, Brahmakunda, Kamala Sagar, Sepahijala Wildlife Sanctuary, Neermahal at Melaghar, Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary, Pilak in Belonia, Debtamura, Tirthamukh, Mandirghat, Dumboor Lake, Coconut Island at Dumboor Lake, Tripura Sundari Temple, Bhuwaneshwari Temple, Badarmokam and Paratia Reserve Forest at Udaipur, Kumarghat, Unakoti in Kailashahar and Jampui Hills. UP to June 1999, nearly 2,38,000 tourists visited Tripura.

Government :

Governor : Professor Siddheshwar

Chief Secretary : V. Thulasidas Prasad

Chief Minister : Manik Sarkar

Chief Justice : A.C. Agarwal

Speaker : Jitendra Sarkar High Court Guwahati High Court Agartala Bench

Jurisdiction of : Falls under

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S. No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. North Tripura 2,820.63 4,67,147 Kailashahar
  2. South Tripura 2,151.77 7,17,100 Udaipur
  3. West Tripura 2,996.82 12,93,861 Agartala
  4. Dhalai 2,522.47 2,79,097 Ambassa

Uttar PradesTop ⇮

Area : 2,94,411 sq km

Population : 13,91,12,287

Capital : Lucknow Principal

Languages : Hindi and Urdu


History And Geography :

The history of Uttar Pradesh is very ancient and interesting. It is recognised in the later Vedic Age as Brahmarshi Desha or Madhya Desha. Many great sages of the Vedic times like Bharadwaja, Gautam, Yagyavalkya, Vasishta, Vishwamitra and Valmiki appear to have flourished in this state. Several sacred books of the Aryans were also composed here. Two great epics of India, Ramayana and Mahabharata, appear to have been inspired by Uttar Pradesh.

In the sixth century BC Uttar Pradesh was associated with two new religions- Jainism and Buddhism. It was at Sarnath that Buddha preached his first sermon and laid the foundations of his order and it was in Kushinagar in Uttar Pradesh that Buddha breathed his last. Several centres in Uttar Pradesh like Ayodhya, Prayag, Varanasi and Mathura became reputed centres of learning. Sri Sankaracharya, the great Hindu reformer, established one of his ashrams at Badrinath in the medieval period. Uttar Pradesh passed under Muslim rule and led the way to a new synthesis of Hindu and Islamic cultures. Ramananda and his Muslim disciple Kabir, Tulsidas, Soordas and many other intellectuals contributed to the growth of Hindi and other languages.

Uttar Pradesh preserved its intellectural leadership even under the British administration. The British combined Agra and Oudh into one province and called it United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. The name was shortened to the United Provinces in 1935. In January 1950 the United Provinces was renamed as Uttar Pradesh.

The state is bound by Tibet and Nepal in north, Himachal Pradesh in north-west, Haryana in west, Madhya Pradesh in south and Bihar in east. Uttar Pradesh can be divided into three distinct regions: (i) Northern mountains, (ii) Southern hills plateau and (iii) Gangetic Plain.

Agriculture :
Agriculture is the main occupation of 78 per cent of the population of the state. The net cultivated area in the state is 174 lakh hectares. The State has provided 230.37 lakh metric tonnes of wheat, 121.66 lakh metric tonnes of rice, 23.17 lakh metric tonnes of pulses and 10.06 lakh metric tonnes of oil seeds, 1,217.36 lakh tonnes sugar cane during the year under review. Total food grains production during 1997-98 has been 418.29 lakh metric tonnes.

Irrigation and Power:
During 1997-98, an expenditure of Rs 2,094.5256 crore was made to raise the irrigation potential to a level of 267.99 lakh hectares. The UP State Electricity Board (UPSEB) since its inception on 1 April 1959 has been carrying, out the work of generation, transmission and distribution of electricity throughout the State. At the time of its inception the total installed capacity, including thermal and hydro, was 2635 MW which has now been raised to 6,158.75 MW (derated 5,885.75 MW). As on 31 March 1999, 88,641 villages were electrified as per CEA definition and 62,201 villages were electrified through LT Mains. Besides, 63,282 schedule caste bastis were also electrified..

Industry and Minerals :
By the end of March 1998, there were 2,281 medium and large industrial undertakings with an investment of Rs 37,740.40 crore and employment opportunities for 7,23,000 persons. Besides, there were 3,42,000 small-scale industrial units involving a total investment of Rs 3,231.43 crore and employment opportunities for 14,20,000 persons. About 37.27 lakh tonnes of sugar was produced in the state. There were 68 textiles units. 106.5 M.kg cotton cloth and 13.2 M.kg cotton yarn was produced. Similarly, the number of automobile units was 27 having an investment of Rs 4,801.36 crore and job opportunities for 17,338 persons. The state has 22 cement manufacturing units having a total investment of Rs 15,959 crore and employment for 5,131 persons. New Okhla Industrial Development Authority (NOIDA) was created in 1976 by including 19,600 hectare land of 73 villages under Dadari tehsil in Gautam Buddha Nagar. It is planned to develop 102 sectors by the year 2011. The authority includes industrial sectors, housing sectors, group housing sectors, residential buildings, commercial assets and institutional sectors. Step has been taken to develop other industrial areas in the State on the pattern of Noida and Greater Noida. For speedy industrial development Infrastructure Initiative Fund, Uttar Pradesh Venture capital fund and Industrial corriders have been created. Besides, Uttar Pradesh Investment centres have been opened in New Delhi, Calcutta and Mumbai for attracting investment and liaisoning with national and international agencies. The centres are providing .escort. service to the entrepreneurs. A Software Technology Parley has been set up in Kanpur for promotion of software export.

Under the public sector, the mining of limestone, magnesite, coal, rockphosphate, dolimite and silica-sand is carried out. The bulk production of minor minerals and some of the major minerals like limestone, silica-sand, magnesite, pyrophyllite and diaspore is mostly with the private sector. During 1997-98 major minerals and minor minerals of about Rs 152.11 crore were produced. Important mineralbased industries include large cement plants in Sonbhadra, mini-cement plant in Almora, dead burnt magnesite plants in Almora and Pithoragarh, while those under construction include float glass project in Banda and silica-sand benefication plant in Allahabad. The mineral industry is labour-intensive. During the year 1997-98 the Government had undertaken 16 programmes of mineral research, of which nine programmes were conducted in the plains and seven in hill areas.

Road :
By the end of 1998-99, total road length in the State of U.P. was 1,21,761 km. This include 4,036 km of national highways, 9,637 km of state highways, 9,911 km of important district roads, 25,246 km of other district roads and 72,931 km of rural roads.

Railways :
Lucknow is the main junction of the northern network. Other important railway junctions are Agra, Kanpur, Allahabad, Mughalsarai, Jhansi, Moradabad, Varanasi, Tundla, Gorakhpur, Gonda, Faizabad, Bareilly and Sitapur.

Aviation :
There are airports at Lucknow, Kanpur, Varanasi, Allahabad, Agra, Jhansi, Bareilly. Hindon (Ghaziabad), Gorakhpur, Sarsawa (Saharanpur), Pantnagar (Nainital), Jolly Grant (Dehradun) and Fursatganj (Rae-Bareli).

Festivals :
The biggest congregation, perhaps of the world, Kumba Mela is held at Allahabad and Hardwar every twelfth year. Ardh Kumbh Mela is also held at these places every sixth year. In Allahabad, there is a Magh Mela every winter in January when people come and settle there for a month to have a dip in the holy Sangam every morning. Among other fairs is the fortnight long jhoola fair of Mathura, Vrindavan and Ayodhya, when dols are placed in gold and silver jhoolas or cradles. A dip in the Ganga on Kartik pooranmasi is supposed to be the holiest and there are big congregations at Garhmukteswar, Soran Rajghat, Kakora, Bithur, Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi, Ayodhya and Hardwar. A famous cattle fair is held at Bateswar in Agra district. Dewa in Bara Banki district has became famous because of the muslim saint Waris Shah. Besides, important festivals of the Hindus, Muslims, etc., are widely celebrated in the state.

Tourist Centres :
Uttar Pradesh has varied attractions for all kinds of tourists. Besides ancient places of pilgrimage like Varanasi, Vindhyachal, Ayodhya, Chitrakoot, Prayag, Bageshwar, Jageshwar, Pauri, Naimisharanya, Mathura, Vrindavan, Hardwar, Rishikesh, Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri, Yamunotri, Nanak Matta, Hemkund Sahib, Dewa Sharief Peerane-Kaliyar, Dargah of Sheikh Saleem Chishti in Fatehpur, Sarnath, Shravasti, Kushinagar, Sankisa, Kampil, Piprahwa and Kaushambi, places like Agra, Ayodhya, Sarnath, Varanasi, Lucknow, Mathura, Prayag, Jhansi, Gorakhpur, Jaunpur, Kannauj, Mahoba, Devgarh, Bithur, and Vindhyachal have rich treasures of Hindu and Islamic architecture and culture. Uttar Pradesh has a treasure of magnificent scenic spots like Sangam in Allahabad, Hindon (Ghaziabad) and Tanda Waterfall in Mirzapur. The hills of Kumaon are a feast to the eyes. The scenic beauty of the Himalayan valleys is enthralling.

Government :

Governor : Suraj Bhan

Chief Secretary : Yogendra Narain

Chief Minister :Ram Prakash Gupta

Chief Justice : Justice N.K. Mitra

Speaker : Kesari Nath Tripathi

Jurisdiction of : Uttar Pradesh High Court

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S. No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. Agra 4,027 27,51,021 Agra
  2. Aligarh 5,019 32,95,982 Aligarh
  3. Etah 4,446 22,44,998 Etah
  4. Firozabad 2,361 15,33,054 Firozabad
  5. Mainpuri 2,760 13,16,746 Mainpuri
  6. Mathura 3,811 19,31,186 Mathura
  7. Mahamaya Nagar - 1,13,285 Hathras
  8. Azamgarh 4,234 31,53,885 Azamgarh
  9. Ballia 2,981 22,62,273 Ballia
  10. Mau 1,713 14,45,782 Mau
  11. Kaushambi 2,015 11,57,402 Kaushambi
  12. Fatehpur 4,152 18,99,241 Fatehpur
  13. Pratapgarh 3,717 22,10,700 Pratapgarh
  14. Allahabad 2,261 49,21,313 Allahabad
  15. Chitrakoot 3,513 5,95,996 Chitrakootdham
  16. Budaun 5,168 24,48,338 Budaun
  17. Bareilly 4,120 28,34,616 Bareilly
  18. Pilibhit 3,499 12,83,103 Pilibhit
  19. Shahjahanpur 4,575 19,87,395 Shahjahanpur
  20. Faizabad 4,511 29,78,484 Faizabad
  21. Ambedkarnagar - - Akbarpur
  22. Bahraich 6,877 27,63,750 Bahraich
  23. States and Union Territories
  24. Barabanki 4,402 24,23,136 Barabanki
  25. Gonda 7,352 35,73,075 Gonda
  26. Sultanpur 4,436 25,58,970 Sultanpur
  27. Pauri Garhwal 5,438 6,82,535 Pauri
  28. Chamoli 9,126 4,54,871 Chamoli
  29. Dehradun 3,088 10,25,679 Dehradun
  30. Tehri Garhwal 4,421 5,80,153 New Tehri
  31. Uttarkashi 8,016 2,39,709 Uttarkashi
  32. Gorakhpur 3,325 30,66,002 Gorakhpur
  33. Deoria 2,613 21,43,745 Deoria
  34. Kushinagar 2,832 22,96,279 Padarauna
  35. Maharajganj 2,948 16,76,378 Maharajganj
  36. Banda 7,624 18,62,139 Banda
  37. Hamirpur 4,098 8,98,326 Hamirpur
  38. Jalaun 4,565 12,19,377 Orai
  39. Lalitpur 5,039 7,52,043 Lalitpur
  40. Mahoba 3,068 5,68,165 Mahoba
  41. Jhansi 5,024 14,29,698 Jhansi
  42. Kanpur (Nagar) 1,065 24,18,487 Kanpur
  43. Kanpur (Dehat) 5,111 21,38,317 Akbarpur
  44. Farrukhabad 4,274 24,40,266 Fatehgarh
  45. Etawah 4,326 21,24,655 Etawah
  46. Lucknow 2,528 27,62,801 Lucknow
  47. Hardoi 5,986 27,47,082 Hardoi
  48. Lakhimpur Kheri 7,680 24,19,234 Kheri
  49. Rai Bareli 4,609 23,22,810 Rai Bareli
  50. Sitapur 5,743 28,57,009 Sitapur
  51. Unnao 4,558 22,00,397 Unnao
  52. Nainital 6,794 15,40,174 Nainital
  53. Udhamsingh Nagar 3,358 9,14,861 Rudrapur
  54. Almora 5,385 8,36,617 Almora
  55. Pithoragarh 8,856 5,66,408 Pithoragarh
  56. Bulandshahar 4,352 28,49,859 Bulandshahar
  57. Meerut 3,911 34,47,912 Meerut
  58. Ghaziabad 2,590 27,03,933 Ghaziabad
  59. Gautam Buddha Nagar1,501 1,46,514 Noida
  60. Moradabad 5,967 41,21,035 Moradabad
  61. Bijnor 4,561 24,54,521 Bijnor
  62. Rampur 2,367 15,02,141 Rampur
  63. Jyotiba Phule Nagar 2,470 13,29,554 Amroha
  64. Saharanpur 3,689 23,09,029 Saharanpur
  65. Hardwar 2,360 11,24,488 Hardwar
  66. Muzaffarnagar 4,008 28,42,543 Muzaffarnagar
  67. Varanasi 4,036 37,82,949 Varanasi
  68. Jaunpur 4,038 32,14,636 Jaunpur
  69. Chandauli 2,485 12,74,839 Chandauli
  70. Ghazipur 3,377 24,16,617 Ghazipur
  71. St. Ravi Das Nagar 1,056 10,77,633 Bhadohi
  72. Mirzapur 4,522 16,57,139 Mirzapur
  73. Sonbhadra 6,788 10,75,041 Robertsganj
  74. Basti 3,733 27,38,522 Basti
  75. Balrampur 3,457 13,68,630 Balrampur
  76. Shravasti 2,186 9,23,377 Shravasti
  77. Siddharth Nagar 3,495 17,07,685 Navgarh
  78. Champawat 1,712 1,93,337 Champawat
  79. Bageshwar 1,626 2,24,172 Bageshwar
  80. Rudra Prayag 2,439 2,00,451 Rudra Prayag
  81. Baghpat 1,345 10,30,399 Baghpat
  82. Kannauj 2,058 11,55,847 Kannauj
  83. Orraiya 2,054 10,00,035 Orraiya
  84. Sant Kabir Nagar - 9,73,385 Khalilabad

West BengalTop ⇮

Area : 88,752 sq km

Population : 6,79,82,732

Capital : Calcutta Principal

Languages : Bengali


History And Geography :

Bengal finds a coveted place even in pre-historic times. At the time of Alexander.s invasion a powerful kingdom called Gangaridai ruled over Bengal. Ascendancy of the Guptas and the Mauryas had somewhat little effect on Bengal. Later Sasanka became King of Bengal and is said to have played an important role in north-eastern India in the early half of the seventh century. He was succeeded by Gopala, who founded the Pala dynasty which ruled for centuries and had created a huge empire. The Palas were followed by the Sena dynasty which was ended by Muslim rulers from Delhi. Bengal was ruled by various Muslim rulers and governors till the Mughal period in sixteenth century.

After the Mughals, history of modern Bengal begins with the advent of European and English trading companies. Battle of Plassey in 1757 changed the course of history when the English first gained a strong foothold in Bengal and India. In 1905 it was partitioned to achieve some political returns but people.s growing movement under the auspices of Congress led to the reunion in 1911. This triggered off hectic movement for freedom which culminated with Independence in 1947, and partition. After 1947, the merger of native settlement began which ended with its final reorganisation in 1956 (as per Recommendations of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956) when some Bengali speaking areas of a neighbouring state were transferred to West Bengal.

The land frontiers of the State touch Bangladesh in the east and is separated from Nepal in the west. Bhutan lies in the north-east, while Sikkim is on the north. On the west and south are the states of Bihar and Orissa, respectively, Bay of Bengal washing its southern frontiers.

Agriculture :
Agriculture plays a pivotal role in the State.s income and nearly three out of four persons in the State are directly or indirectly involved in agriculture. The total food production in the State in 1997-98 was 143.54 lakh tonnes. The rice production in 1997-98 was 132.37 lakh tonnes. West Bengal was the largest producer of rice among the states of India. The production of wheat and pulses in 1997-98 was 8.10 lakh tonnes and 1.53 lakh tonnes respectively. The production of jute was 75.50 lakh bales in 1997-98. The production of oilseeds during 1997-98 was 3.86 lakh tonnes and of potato 59.49 lakh tonnes.

Irrigation and Power:
Power in West Bengal is currently generated by the West Bengal Power Development Corporation Limited, West Bengal State Electricity Board, Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation and Durgapur Project Limited. Total generation of power in the State was 14,746 MU in 1997-98. The total number of moujas electrified during 1998-99 (up to November 1998) is 29,341 and the total number of pump sets energized is 1,05,419. Under the Kutirjyoti and Lokdeep schemes as much as 1,03,109 households were electrified up to November 1998.

During 1997-98, total minor irrigation potential created in the State was 75 thousand hectares (56.25 thousand hectares from ground water and 18.75 thousand hectares from surface water sources). In 1998-99, it is estimated that irrigation potential of another 75 thousand hectares will be created. During 1997-98, irrigation potential for 1,375.54 thousand hectares were created through major and medium irrigation projects. Currently work on Kangsabati Reservoir project, Damador Valley project and Teesta Barrage project is going on. It is expected that the first two projects will be completed by the end of the Ninth Plan. A cumulative irrigation potential of 1.12 lakh hectares has been created up to 1997-98 from the ongoing Teesta Barrage project. About eight to ten thousand hectares of minor irrigation potential is also created through schemes under rural development.

Industry :
West Bengal is one of the major industrial states in the country with 11,213 registered working factories in 1997. West Bengal Industrial Development Corporation (WBIDC), the state agency for promoting industrial investment, provided loan to the industrial units amounting to Rs 2,049.55 lakh up to 30 November 1998. A Mega City Project for Calcutta has been initiated by the state government entailing an investment of around Rs 1,600 crore. Under this programme, 72 schemes in the field of water supply, traffic and transportation, sewage and drainage, bustee improvement, etc. have been taken up.

In developing infrastructure specifically for industries, the West Bengal Industrial Infrastructure Development Corporation (WBIIDC) has so far constructed 12 industrial estates (growth centres) in the state, covering an area of 2,000 acre. These growth centres have activities like roads, water, power, drainage etc. Of the 1,450 acre of allocable land in these growth centres, 1,275 acre has already been distributed to 213 industrial units.

The number of small scale industrial units registered with Directorate of Cottage and Small Scale Industries during 1997-98 stood at 16,359 (provisional).

Road :
The length of roads as on 31 March 1996 was 74,459 km including 1,710 km national highways. The length of roads under State Highways is 3,388 km, under PWD 12,288 km and that of the district roads is 30,456 km respectively.

Railways :
The total length of railway route (inclusive of broad gauge, metre gauge and narrow gauge) in the state is 3,784.96 km in 1997-98. Howrah, Asansol, Sealdah, Bandel, Bardhaman, Kharagpur and New Jalpaiguri are the main junctions among others.

Aviation :
At Dum Dum near Calcutta an international airport is located and other airfields in the State are Balurghat, Coochbehar, Malda, Bagdogra, Panagarh, Behala, Barrackpore and Kalaikunda.

Ports :
Calcutta is the most important port followed by Haldia.

Festivals :
Durga Puja is the most important festival along with Kali puja or Diwali besides Vasant Panchami, Lakshmi Puja, Holi, Sivaratri, Janmasthami, Id-ul-Fitr, etc.

Tourist Centres :
Important tourist centres are, among others Calcutta, Digha (Midnapore), Bakkhali Sea Resort, Sagar Island and Sundarbans (South 24-Parganas), Bandel, Tarakeswar, Kamarpukur (Hooghly) and Gadiara (Howrah), Shantiniketan and Bakreshwar (Birbhum), Durgapur (Burdwan), Mukutmanipur and Vishnupur (Bankura), Ayodhya Hills (Purulia), Murshidabad, Gour and Pandua (Malda), Darjeeling, Mirik, Kalimpong, Sandakfu and Falut and Kurseong (Darjeeling), Jaldapara and Dooars (Jalpaiguri).

Government :

Governor : Viren J. Shah

Chief Secretary : Manish Gupta

Chief Minister : Jyoti Basu

Chief Justice : Satya Brata Sinha (Acting)

Speaker : Hasim Abdul Halim

Jurisdiction of : West Bengal and High Court Andaman andNicobar Islands

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S. No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. Bankura 6,882 28,05,065 Bankura
  2. Bardhaman 7,024 60,50,605 Bardhaman
  3. Birbhum 4,545 25,55,664 Suri
  4. Calcutta 1 18,733 43,99,819 Calcutta
  5. Darjeeling 3,149 12,99,919 Darjeeling
  6. Howrah 1,467 37,29,644 Howrah
  7. Hooghly 3,149 43,55,230 Chinsurah
  8. Jalpaiguri 6,227 28,00,543 Jalpaiguri
  9. Coochbehar 3,387 21,71,145 Coochbehar
  10. Malda 3,733 26,37,032 English Bazar
  11. Medinipur 14,081 83,31,912 Medinipur
  12. Murshidabad 5,324 47,40,149 Berhampore
  13. Nadia 3,927 38,52,097 Krishnagar
  14. North 24 Parganas2 14,052 72,81,881 Alipore
  15. South 24 Parganas - 57,15,030 Barasat
  16. Purulia 6,259 22,24,577 Purulia
  17. Uttar Dinajpur 3,180 19,26,729 Raigunj
  18. Dakshin Dinajpur 2,183 12,00,924 Balurghat

1 Includes three municipalities (Garden Reach with 12.05 sq km, suburban with 30.38 sq km and Jadavpur with 40 sq km)
2 Shows combined area

Andaman And Nicobar IslandsTop ⇮

Area : 8,249 sq km

Population : 2,80,661

Capital : Port Blair Principal

Languages : Hindi, Nicobarese, Bengali, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu


History And Geography :

he Andaman and Nicobar Islands, an Union Territory, are situated between 6° and 14° North Latitude and 92° and 94° East Longitude. The group of 572 islands/islets lie in the Bay of Bengal 193 km from Cape Negaris in Burma (Myanmar), 1,255 km from Calcutta and 1,190 km from Chennai. Two principal group of islets are Ritchie.s Archipelago and Labyrinth Islands. The Nicobar Islands are situated to the south of Andamans, 121 km from Little Andaman island. There are 36 inhabited islands, including 24 in the Andaman district and 12 in the Nicobar district.

The orginal inhabitants of the islands lived in the forests on hunting and fishing. There are four Negrito tribes, viz., the Great Andamanese, Onge, Jarawa and Sentinalese in the Andaman group of islands and two Mongoloid tribes, viz., Nicobarese and Shompens in the Nicobar group of islands. Jarawa and Sentinalese are still hostile. Among these, the Jarawas have just now started occasionally coming out of their natural habitat. The Sentinalese are still keeping a separate entity and have not yet learnt the concept of covering their bodies.

The modern history of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands begins with the establishment of a settlement by East India Company in 1789. However, in 1796 this settlement was abandoned. Following the first war of Indian Independence in 1857, the British India Government founded the penal settlement in these islands in 1858, primarily known as Kalapani, for the deportation of mutineers, political prisoners and dreaded criminals from the mainland India which continued till the second World War. During the Second World War, the Japanese forces occupied the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in 1942. Further following the surrender of the Japanese forces in the Second World War, the British India Government reoccupied these in 1945 and continued their administration of these islands till the Independence of the country in 1947.

Agriculture :
A total of 49,539 hectares of land is used for agriculture purposes. Paddy the main food crop, is mostly cultivated in Andaman group of islands, whereas coconut and arecanut are the main cash crops of Nicobar group of islands. Field crops, namely, pulses, oilseeds and vegetables are grown, followed by paddy during Rabi season. Different kinds of fruits such as mango, sapota, orange, banana, papaya, pineapple and root crops are grown on hilly land owned by farmers. Spices, viz., pepper, clove, nutmeg, and cinnamon are grown under multi-tier cropping system. Rubber, red oil, palm and cashew are grown on a limited scale in these islands.

Forests :
Forests cover 7,171 sq km of the total area of the islands. All types of forests are found in the islands, such as giant evergreen, hill-top evergreen, moist, deciduous, littoral, mangrove and swamp forest. A large variety of timber is found in the Andaman group of islands. The most valuable timbers are padauk and gurjan. These species are not found in Nicobar. At present there is 7,613 sq km of land under forest cover in Andaman and Nicobar islands.

Industry :
There are 1,316 registered small scale, village and handicrafts units. Two units are export oriented in the line of fish processing activity. Apart from this, there are shell and wooden handicrafts units catering to tourists within the islands and also exporting to other countries. Besides four medium sized industrial units are functioning. Recently promoted SSI units are engaged in the production of polythene bags, PVC conduit pipes and fittings, paints and varnishes, fibre glass and mini flour mills, soft drinks and beverages, steel furniture, barrels, aluminium doors and windows, etc. Small scale and handicraft units are also engaged in shell crafts, bakery products, rice milling, furniture making, oil seeds crushing, etc.

The Andaman and Nicobar Intergrated Development Corporation established in 1988, has expanded its wings in the field of civil supplies, tourism, fisheries, industries and industrial financing and functions as authorised agents for Jet Airways.

Transport :
The islands are accessible both by air and sea. Alliance Air is operating five flights a week between Calcutta and Port Blair and four flights a week between Chennai and Visakhapatnam. The Directorate of Shipping Services maintain regular inter-island, fore-shore and harbour ferry services to cater to the need of inter-island commuters.

The state transport services established as a commercial undertaking extended its service to 11 major islands of this Union Territory right from Diglipur in the north to Campbell Bay in the south. The department also introduced Andaman Trunk Road service to connect the capital with Rangat, Mayabunder and Diglipur with trans-shipment service by providing three ferry boats, covering a distance of 272 kms.

Tourist Centres :
The Emerald isles, Andaman and Nicobar Islands are the place of historical importance and paradise for eco-friendly tourists. Covered with dense forests and endless variety of exotic flora and fauna, these islands have lovely beaches and charming under-water corals and marine life. Important tourist centres are: Places connected with freedom struggle like Viper island, Ross island and the Cellular Jail, National Memorial, Anthropological Museum, Marine Museum, Water Sports Complex, Gandhi Park, Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park; Islands like, Havelock, Neil, Jolly, Buoy, Cinque, Red Skin, Middle and North Andamans; Beaches like Corbyn.s Cove, Radha Nagar, Cut Bert Bay, Karmatang (both Turtle nesting areas), Sita Nagar, etc. Best tourist season is during October to May. During 1998, total 79,647 tourists visited Andaman islands, of these 4,915 were foreigners.

Government :

Lt.Governor : Ishwari Prasad Gupta

Chief Secretary : Ramesh Narayanaswami

Jurisdiction of High Court : Falls under the jurisdiction of Calcutta High Court.

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S. No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. Andaman 6,408 2,41,453 Port Blair
  2. Nicobar 1,841 39,208 Car Nicobar

Dadra And Nagar HaveliTop ⇮

Area : 491 sq km

Population : 1,38,477

Capital : Silvassa Principal

Languages : Gujarati, Hindi


History And Geography :

After prolonged skirmishes between the Portuguese and Marathas, on 17 December 1779, the Maratha Government assigned the aggregated revenue of Rs 12,000 in a few villages of this territory to the Portuguese as compensation to ensure their friendship. The Portuguese ruled this territory until its liberation by the people on 2 August 1954. Subsequently the administration was carried on for some time by an administrator. However, the territory was merged with the Indian Union on 11 August 1961 and since then is being administered by the Government of India as a Union Territory through the Administrator. Since liberation of the territory from Portuguese rule a Varishtha Panchayat was working as an advisory body of the administration, which was, however, dissolved in August 1989 and Pradesh Council for Dadra and Nagar Haveli was announced and subsequently Dadra and Nagar Haveli District Panchayat and 11 Village Panchayats were constituted as per Constitutional amendments at all India level.

The Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli has an area of 491 sq km surrounded by Gujarat and Maharashtra. It consists of two pockets, namely, Dadra and Nagar Haveli. There are 72 villages of which one village Kothar is almost uninhabited and has been submerged and four others are partly submerged due to construction of Damanganga Irrigation Project which is a joint venture of Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu and Gujarat State. The nearest railway station Vapi is 18 km from Silvassa.

Agriculture :
Dadra and Nagar Haveli, a predominantly rural area having about 79 per cent population of tribals has about 22,967 hectare under cultivation. Major crop is paddy (Kharif) while Nagli and other hill-millets are crops of the area. Among fruits mango, chiku and bananas, etc., are also produced. Forests cover 40 per cent of the total geographical area. The tribal population that leans heavily on forests have been given exclusive rights for collection of minor forest produce free of cost.

Irrigation and Power:
Prior to liberation of the territory, there was no irrigation facility and cultivators had to fully depend upon rainfall. Later on adequate steps were taken and 91 lift irrigation schemes were completed at various places in the territory. A multiple irrigation project Damanganga is also in its final stages. Power is purchased from Gujarat State Electricity Board and the entire territory is electrified.

Industry :
Prior to 1965-66 there was no industrial unit existing in the Union Territory except a few traditional craftsmen who used to make pots, leather items viz., chappals, shoes, and some other items of bamboo. Industrial development started on a low-key during 1967-68 with the establishment of an industrial estate under the cooperative sector by Dan Udyog Sahakari Sangh Limited. Thereafter, three government industrial estates have been developed at Silvassa, Masat and Khadoli. By March 1998 there were 716 industries which include cottage, village and small scale industries and 285 medium scale industries in textiles, engineering, plastics, electronics, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, etc., which employ 18,414 persons and produce goods worth over Rs 2,000 crore. These industries are given several incentives like exemption of sales tax for 15 years, corporate income tax exemption for five years, power subsidy and concessional finance as declared by the government of India from time to time and octroi duty is not charged.

Transport :
The Union territory does not have its own road transport system. It avails of Gujarat and Maharashtra states transport system. Total road length is about 533.94 km of which 467 km is surfaced. Sixty-eight villages are connected with all weather roads. Rail route from Mumbai to Ahmedabad links Vapi also. Mumbai is the nearest airport.

Festivals :
Normally all festivals of Hindus, Muslim and Christians are celebrated in the territory. Tribals celebrate their own festivals. Diwaso is celebrated by Dhodia and Varli tribes and Raksha Bhandhan is celebrated by Dhodia. Other festivals include Bhawada amongst Varlis and Koli tribes and Khali Puja by all tribes after harvesting of crops and Gram Devi before harvesting of crops.

Tourist Centres :
Tourism sector has been assigned a high priority keeping in view the deep forest area and favourable climate. The promiment places of tourist interest are Tadkeshwar Shiva Mandir, Bindrabin, Deer park Khanvel, Vanganga lake and island garden, Dadra, Vanvihar Udhyan, Mini Zoo, Bal Udhyan, Tribal cultural museum, and Hirvavan garden at Silvassa. The development of Water Sports at Dudhani and Khandiv Van at Luhari are also under completion. Cottages at Khanvel and Chauda gardens and the tentage accommodation at Dudhani are available for the tourists.

Government :

Administrator : Ramesh Negi

Jurisdiction of High Court : Falls under the jurisdiction of the Mumbai High Court

Daman and DiuTop ⇮

Area : 112 sq km

Population : 1,01,586

Capital : Daman Principal

Languages : Gujarati


History And Geography :

Daman and Diu along with Goa was a colony held by the Portuguese even after Independence. In 1961, it was made an integral part of India. After conferring statehood on Goa on 30 May 1987, Daman and Diu was made a separate Union Territory. Daman lies about 193 km away from Mumbai. It is bound on north by the Kolak river, on east by Gujarat, on south by Kalai river and on west by the gulf of Cambay. The neighbouring district of Daman is Valsad in Gujarat. Diu is an island connected by two bridges. The neighbouring district of Diu is Junagadh of Gujarat.

Agriculture :
Total area under irrigation is 1,121.03 hectare (833.73 hectare in Daman and 287 in Diu). Important field and garden crops are paddy, ragi, bajra, jowar, groundnut, pulses and beans, wheat, banana, sapota, mango, coconut and sugarcane. There are no major forests in the territory.

Industry and Power :
There are 1,334 small scale industries in Daman and Diu. Two industrial areas have been developed by Omnibus Industrial Development Corporation at Daman. The other industrial areas are Dabhel, Bhimpore and Kadaiya. All villages have been electrified. Daman and Diu have got adequate power allocation from Central Sector power stations in western region. At Daman there are three 66/11 KV sub-station, one at Kachigam, Dalwada and Dabhel. In Diu there is only one sub-station.

Road :
The total length of road in Daman and Diu are 191 km and 70 km (surface) respectively.

Railways :
There is no railway link with Daman and Diu. The nearest railway station from Daman is Vapi on western railway on Mumbai-Delhi route. The nearest railway station from Diu is Dalvada on metre-gauge.

Aviation :
There are airports both in Daman and Diu. Diu has been connected by air and there is regular air service from Mumbai to Diu.

Tourist Centres :
Important tourist places in Daman are Devka Beach, Jampore Beach, Kachigam Tank, Satya Sagar Udhyan, Dalwada, Kadaiya Pond, Nani Daman Jetty garden, old churches, forts, Light House and Summer House. Jallender Beach, Nagoa Beach and Children.s park at Ghoghla are some of the tourist centres in Diu. The tourist arrivals were 4,38,340 in Daman and 1,50,000 in Diu during 1997- 98.

Government :

Administrator : O.P. Kelkar

Jurisdiction of High Court : Raj Kamal Saxena - Presently there is a common High Court for Maharashtra and Goa and Union Territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli, at Mumbai.

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S. No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. Daman 72 62,101 Daman
  2. Diu 40 39,485 Diu
  3. States and Union Territories

PondicherryTop ⇮

Area : 492 sq km

Population : 8,07,785

Capital : Pondicherry Principal

Languages : Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, English and French States and Union Territories


History And Geography :

The territory of Pondicherry comprises the former French establishment of Pondicherry, Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam which lie scattered in South India. Pondicherry, the capital of the territory was once the original headquarters of the French in India. It is bounded on the east by the Bay of Bengal and on the other three sides by the South Arcot district of Tamil Nadu. About 150 km south of Pondicherry on the east coast lies Karaikal. Mahe is situated on the Malabar coast on the western ghats surrounded by Kerala. It can be reached from Calicut Airport which is 70 km from Mahe. Yanam is situated adjoining the East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh and is about 200 km from Vishakapatnam Airport.

Agriculture :
Nealry 45 per cent of the population in the Union Territory is engaged in agriculture and allied pursuits. Ninety per cent of the cultivated area is irrigated. Besides ricether minor food crops, viz., ragi, bajra and pulses are grown in the Union Territory. The principal cash crops are sugarcane, groundnut and cotton.

In 1998-99, 27,028 hectares had been cultivated under rice. Food grain productin is estimated to be 83,955 MT. Production of cotton and sugarcane will be in order of 4,244 bales of 180 kg and 2,59,760 MT.

Irrigation and Power:
Irrigation in Pondicherry is mainly through tanks and tubewells. There are 84 tanks with an ayacut of 6,456 ha of which two are comparatively bigger (Oustery and Bahour). The tubewell irrigation system is almost in the private sector. There is a major proposal to rehabilitate all the tanks in the Pondicherry region at a cost of Rs 34.73 crore with the aid of the European Economic Commission in order to improve ground water recharge and stabilise the existing ayacut.

There is no power generating station in the Union Territory of Pondicherry. The Power requirements are met by availing share from the Central Generating Stations and by purchasing power from neighbouring State Electricity Boards. However, to meet the growing demand of power, it has been contemplated to establish a combined cycle Gas Power Plant of 32.5 MW at Karaikal. For speedy implementation of the project, Pondicherry Power Corporation was formed. The T.R. Pattinam 110/11 KV Sub-station, associated with Gas Power Plant has been commissioned on 16 July 1997. This Gas Power Plant is expected to be commissioned by July 1999. Rural Electrification was completed by 1972 itself. 230 KV/110 KV sub-station at Bahour is likely to be commissioned by March 2000.

Industry :
The industrial sector in Pondicherry employed about 8,000 persons in the early fifties. With an investment of over Rs 1,256 crore, industries are providing a livelihood to 71,955 people as on 31 March 1999. The industrial units are manufacturing items such as textiles, sugar, yarn, spirit and beer, potassium chlorate, rice-bran oil, auto parts, disposable syringes, roofing sheets, nylon mono filaments, hard gelatine, capsules, washing machines, bio-polymers injection, moulded plastic components, steel tubes, LPG cylindrs, oxygen and acetelyne gas, computers, monitors and key boards, electrical motors, etc.

Road :
The total length of roads as maintained by the Public Works Department is 576.637 km, of which national highways is 24.65, state highways 68.765 km, district and other roads 225.36 kms and rural roads 257.666 km. ECR road of 16.435 km was completed and opened for traffic.

Railways :
Pondicherry is connected to Chennai by metre-gauge and the nearest broadgauge link is Villupuram junction at a distance of 40 km.

Aviation :
The nearest airport Chennai is 160 km from Pondicherry.

Tourist Centres :
Pondicherry has a rich French cultural heritage, having been the capital of the French Colonies in India since 17th Century. Pondicherry, Karaikal, Yanam and Mahe were transferred to the Indian Union in 1954. The French legacy is visible in the well-planned town, neatly laid roads, wide and vibrant beaches, beautiful promenade, architecturally imposing churches and public buildings and the statues of Joan of Arc and Joseph Francois Dupleix. French Boulevard town, Sri Aurobindo Ashram, Auroville Museum, Chunnambar resort, botanical garden are some other places of tourist interest.

Government :

Governor : Dr Rajani Rai

Chief Secretary : T.T. Joseph

Chief Minister : R.V. Janakiraman

Speaker : V.M.C. Sivakumar High Court of Madras High Court

Jurisdiction of : Falls under jurisdiction

Area Population And Headquarters of Districts :
S. No. District Area (sq km) Population Headquarters

  1. Pondicherry 293 6,08,338 Pondicherry
  2. Karaikal 160 1,45,703 Karaikal
  3. Mahe 9 33, 447 Mahe
  4. Yanam 30 20,297 Yanam